Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Early Tamil Society and Culture Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
The name of the script used in the, Sangam Age
(a) English
(b) Devanagari
(c) Tamil-Brahmi
(d) Granta
Answer:
(c) Tamil-Brahmi

Question 2.
The Sri Lankan chronicle composed in the Pali language mentioning about merchants and horse traders from Tamil Nadu
(a) Deepa vamsa
(b) Arthasastra
(c) Mahavamsa
(d) Indica
Answer:
(c) Mahavamsa

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
The notable Chola king credited with bringing forest lands under the plough and developing irrigational facilities
(a) Karikalan
(b) Rajarajan I
(c) Kulothungan
(d) Rajendran I
Answer:
(a) Karikalan

Question 4.
Inscription that mentions the Cheras
(a) Pugalur
(b) Gimar
(c) Pulimankombai
(d) Madurai
Answer:
(a) Pugalur

Question 5.
The famous Venetian traveller who described Kayal as a great and noble city
(a) Vasco da gama
(b) Alberuni
(c) Marco Polo
(d) Megasthenes
Answer:
(c) Marco Polo

Question 6.
(i) Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam Age.
(ii) Prakrit was the language used by the common people in Northern India during the Mauryan period.
(iii) Vienna Papyrus, a Roman document, mentions trade related to Muziri.
(iv) The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil grammar work of Pathupaattu.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct
(d) (iii) and (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 7.
(i) Pathitrupathu speaks about the Pandya kings and their territory.
(ii) The Akanaanuru describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinum.
(iii) The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger.
(iv) Neythal is a sandy desert region.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

II. Fill in the blanks

  1.  _______ are document scripted on stones, copper pllates, coins and rings
  2. ______ refers to systematically digging a site to reconery material evidence for exploring societies of the past
  3.  ______ the classic work of economy and statecrafy authored by Kautiya during the mauyan oeriod
  4.  ________ is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to a habitat or eco-zone with specific physiographical characteristics.
  5. ______ referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans and West Asian people.

Answer:

  1. Inscriptions
  2. Archaeological Exacavation
  3. Arthasastra
  4. Thanai
  5. Yavanar

III. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(a) Evidence of iron smelting has been found in Kodumanal and Guttur.
(b) Periplus of Erythren Sea mentions about the pepper trade with India.
(c) Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of gold.
(d) The Sangam Age has its roots in the Bronze Age.
Answer:
(a) Correct
(b) Wrong. Pliny mentions about the pepper trade with India.
(c) Wrong. Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of Silver.
(d) Wrong. The Sangam Age has its roots in Iron Age

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 2.
(a) The Cheras ruled over Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.
(b) The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention the King Karikalan.
(c) The terms Vanikan and Nigama appear in Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions were different types of merchants.
(d) Salt merchants were called Vanikars and they travelled in bullock carts along with their family.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. The Cholas ruled over Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.
(b) Wrong. The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention the King Nedunchezhian.
(c) Correct. The terms Vanikan denotes a trader, Nigama means a Guild. There were different types of merchants.
(d) Wrong. Salt merchants were called Umanars and they travelling in bullock carts along with their family.

IV. Match the following

  1. Epigraphy – (i) a narrative text presenting the important historical events
  2. Chronicle – (ii) a Sangam Age port
  3. Pastoralism – (iii) an ornament made in precious stone.
  4. Cameo – (iv) the study of inscriptions
  5. Arikkamedu – (v) nomadic people earning livelihood by rearing cattle.

Answer:

  1. – iv
  2. – i
  3. – v
  4. – iii
  5. – ii

V. Answer the following questions briefly

Question 1.
Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history – Discuss.
Answer:

  1. Archaeology is the study of the past by interpretation of the material cultural remains.
  2. Such remains are unearthered by the Systematic excavation of old inhabitation sites called archaeological sites.
  3. Archaeological sites have mounds which are an accumulation of soil, pottery, building and organic remains and objects.
  4. In many parts of Tamil Nadu they are called Nattam, Kottai and Medu.
  5. Such sites provide evidence of how people lived in the past.

Question 2.
How important are coins as a source of evidence for the study of Sangam Age?
Answer:

  1. Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam age.
  2. The coins of the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas, punch marked coins and Roman coins form an important source of evidence from the Sangam Age.
  3. Punch marked coins have been found at Kodumanal and Bodinayakkanur.
  4. Roman coins are concentrated in the Coimbatore region and are found at Azhagankulam, Karar and Madurai.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in Sangam Age. Give reasons.
Answer:

  1. Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence.
  2. Crops like paddy, sugarcane, millets were cultivated.
  3. Both wet and dry land farming were practiced.
  4. Varieties of rice such as Sennel, Vennel, aivananel (a type of rice) are mentioned with literature.
  5. People in the forest adopted punam or shifting cultivation.

Question 4.
Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support.
Answer:

  1. Tamil country had connections with countries overseas both in the east and west.
  2. Roman ships used monsoon winds to cross the Western sea or the Arabian Sea to connect Tamilagam with the Western World.
  3. Spices including pepper, ivory and precious stones were exported.
  4. Metal including gold, silver and copper and precious stones were imported.
  5. Indian pottery has been discovered at Berenike, a port on the Red Sea coast.
  6. A stone with the name “Perumpatankal” has been found at Khuan Luk Pat, Thailand. South east Asia was known as Suvama Bhumi in Tamil Literature.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.
Hero Stones:
a. What was the common practice in a pastoral society?
b. Who plundered the cattle wealth of enemies?
c. How were the dead warriors remembered?
d. Which Tamil text describes the procedures for erecting hero stones?
Answer:
a. As cattle were considered an important source of wealth, raiding cattle owned by adjoining
tribes and clans was common practice in a pastoral society.
b. Tribal chieftains plundered the cattle wealth of enemies.
c. Memorial stones were erected in their honour.
d. Tholkappiyam describes the procedures for erecting herostones.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 2.
Non – Tamil Sources (Foreign Accounts)
a. What does the presence of the non-Tamil sources reveal?
b. Name the classic work of the Mauryan period that makes a mention that the pearl and shells came from Pandya country.
c. What is a chronicle?
d. Who speaks about the pepper trade between Roman empire and India?
Answer:
a. The presence of the non-Tamil sources reveals the extensive contacts and interactions of
the early Tamil society with the outside world.
b. Arthashastra, the classic work of the Mauryan period refers to Pandya Kavataka.
c. Chronicle is a narrative text presenting the important historical events in chronological order.
d. Pliny the Elder, a Roman, speaks about the pepper trade with India by the Romans.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
Industries and Crafts of the Sangam Age
a. What were the important aspects of urbanisation?
b. What is the Tamil name for a potter?
c. What were the different types of pottery used by the people?
d. Identify the Iron implements required for agriculture and warfare
Answer:
a. Craft production and craft specialisation were important aspects of Urbanisation.
b. Kalamceyko means potters.
c. Blackware, russet-coated painted ware, black and red ware potteries were the different types of pottery used.
d. Iron implements for agriculture – Hand sickle, Big sickle, chopper and axe. Iron implements for warfare: Swords, spears, daggers etc.

VII. Answer the following in detail

Question 1.
To what extent do you think the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam Age polity?
Answer:
Sangam Age Polity:

  1. The Sangam age has its roots in the Iron Age.
  2. In the Iron age people were organised into chiefdoms.
  3. From such communities of Iron Age emerged the Vendhars of the early historic period and the Velirs of the Sangam Age were Chieftains.
  4. Among the political powers of the Sangam Age, the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas occupied pre-eminent positions.
  5. They were known as Muvendhar.
  6. The Muvendhar controlled the major towns and ports of the Sangam period.
  7. The Cheras called Keralaputras controlled the region of present day Kerala and also the Western parts of Tamil Nadu.
  8. The Silappathikaram speaks about Cheran Senguttuvan.
  9. The Cholas ruled over the Kaveri delta and Northern parts of Tamil Nadu.
  10. Pattinappalai is a long poem about Kaveripoompattinam.
  11. Silappadhikaram describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinam.
  12. The Pandyas who ruled over the Southern part of Tamil Nadu are referred to in the Ashokan inscriptions.
  13. The Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription mentions the King Nedunchezhian.
  14. A part from the Vendhars, there were Velirs and numerous chieftains who occupied territories on the margins of the Muvendhar.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 2.
Indicate how the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contribute to their economy.
Answer:

  1. Craft production and craft specialisation were important aspects of urbanisation.
  2. In the Sangam Age there were professional groups that produced various commodities.
  3. The system of production of commodities is called industry.
  4. Iron smelting was undertaken in traditional furnaces and such furnaces have been found in many archaeological sites.
  5. Evidence of iron smelting was found in Kodumanal and Guttur.
  6. Iron implements for agriculturcmhd warfare were produced.
  7. Roman gold coins were used to make jewellery.
  8. Evidence of gold smelting was found at Pattanam in Kerala.
  9. Specialised groups called vanikars travelled in groups trading goods and commodities between regions.
  10. Barter was the primary mode of exchange.
  11. Tamilagam exported pepper, ivory and precious stones to the western world and imported gold, silver, copper etc.
  12. Indian pottery has been discovered at Berenike, a port on the Red Sea Coast.
  13. A stone with the name ‘Perumpatankal’ has been found at Khuan Luk Pat, Thailand.
  14. South East Asia was known as Suvama Bhoomi in Tamil literature.
  15. The economy of the Sangam Age was mixed as elaborated in the Thinai concept. People practiced agriculture, pastoralism, trade and money exchange, hunting and gathering and fishing depending upon the eco zones in which they lived.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Early Tamil Society and Culture Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the best answer

Question 1.
The earliest written work on Tamil grammar is ___________
(a) Agananuru
(b) Purananuru
(c) Tholkappiyam
(d) Nattrinai
Answer:
(c) Tholkappiyam

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 2.
Pathupattu includes ___________ long songs
(a) Five
(b) Eight
(c) Twelve
(d) Ten
Answer:
(d) Ten

Question 3.
Pathinen Kilkanakku comprises of ___________ texts.
(a) Fifteen
(b) Eighteen
(c) Twelve
(d) Fourteen
Answer:
(b) Eighteen

Question 4.
Epigraphy is the study of ___________
(a) Inscriptions
(b) Stones
(c) Excavations
(d) Paintings
Answer:
(a) Inscriptions

Question 5.
Description of the procedures for erecting herostones is given in ___________
(a) Thirukkural
(b) Tholkappiyam
(c) Ettuthogai
(d) Kurinji pattu
Answer:
(c) Ettuthogai

Question 6.
The Sangam Age port Arikkamedu is near ___________
(a) Velachery
(b) Puducherry
(c) Karaikal
(d) Madurai
Answer:
(b) Puducherry

Question 7.
Arthasastra was written by ___________
(a) Visakadatta
(b) Chanakya
(c) Kalidasa
(d) Krishna
Answer:
(b) Chanakya

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 8.
Erythrean sea refers to the waters around the ___________
(a) Red sea
(b) Mediterranean sea
(c) Black sea
(d) Caspian sea
Answer:
(a) Red sea

Question 9.
The book Natural History was written in ___________
(a) Latin
(b) Spanish
(c) Greek
(d) English
Answer:
(a) Latin

Question 10.
Hermapollon was a ___________
(a) City
(b) Book
(c) Ship
(d) Language
Answer:
(c) Ship

Question 11.
Muvendars belonged to ______ Period
(a) Mauryan
(b) Sangam
(c) Prehistoric
(d) Neolithic
Answer:
(b) Sangam

Question 12.
The Cheras controlled the region of present day ___________
(a) Karnataka
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Kerela
Answer:
(d) Kerela

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 13.
Aivananel was a type of ___________
(a) Cotton
(b) Wheat
(c) Rice
(d) Iron
Answer:
(c) Rice

Question 14.
Kalamceyko were ___________
(a) Weavers
(b) Potters
(c) Agriculture
(d) Writters
Answer:
(b) Potters

Question 15.
Suvarna Boomi in Tamil literature referred to ___________
(a) North East Asia
(b) South East Asia
(c) South West Asia
(d) North West Asia
Answer:
(b) South East Asia

Question 16.
(i) Tamil-Brahmi was the first script used for writing in Tamil Nadu
(ii) The Archaeological survey of India (ASI) is a state government agency.
(iii) Cameo was the metal used for making vessels.
(iv) Punch marked coins have been found in Keezhadi.
(a) (i) is correct.
(b) (ii) and (iii) correct.
(c) (ii) and (iv) correct.
(d) (i) and (iv) correct.
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct.

Question 17.
(i) The bow and arrow was the symbol of the Cholas.
(ii) River Kaveri drains into Arabian Sea.
(iii) Pandyan rulers patronised Tamil Sangam.
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) is correct.
(b) (i) is correct.
(c) (ii) is correct.
(d) (iii) is correct.
Answer:
(d) (iii) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 18.
(i) Kodumanal is located near Erode in Tamil Nadu.
(ii) Rural centres have a larger population involved in non-agrarian, commercial and political occupation.
(iii) Sangam age people were ignorant about shell bangles and glass beads.
(a) is correct.
(b) (i) and (iii) is correct
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) is correct.
(d) (ii) and (iii) is correct.
Answer:
(b) (i) and (iii) is correct

II. Fill in the Blanks:

  1. The earliest written work on Tamil Grammar is ___________
  2. The long narrative poem of very high quality is called an ___________
  3. Hero stones of the Pallava period occur in large numbers around the Chengam region near ___________ District.
  4. In the Northern part of India during the Mauryan period the common people used the language ___________
  5. Arikkamedu near Puducherry is a Sangam Age ___________
  6. Periplus of Erythrean Sea is an ancient ___________ text.
  7. Vienna Papyrus, a greek document datable to the second century C.E mentions about ___________ trade of olden days’
  8. The plant extensively used for writing in ancient Egypt was ___________
  9. Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas together were called ___________
  10. Cheran Senguttuvan built temple for ___________

Answer:

  1. Tholkappiyam
  2. Epic
  3. Thiruvannamalai
  4. Prakrit
  5. Port
  6. Greek
  7. Muziri’s
  8. Papyrus
  9. Muvendhar
  10. Kannagi

III. Find out the Correct Statement:

Question 1.
(a) The classical Sangam corpus consists of the Tholkappiyam, the Pathinen Melkanakku and the Pathinen Kilkanakku only.
(b) There are 1300 couplets in Thirukkural.
(c) The development of script marks the beginning of the historical period.
(d) In Tamil Nadu Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters. These caves were the abodes of Buddhist monks.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. The classical Sangam Corpus consists of the Tholkappiyam, The Pathinen Melkanakku, Pathinen Kilkanakku and the Five epics.
(b) Wrong. There are 1330 complets in Thirukkural.
(c) Correct.
(d) Wrong. In Tamil Nadu Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions have been found mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters. These caves were the abodes of mostly Jain monks.

Question 2.
(a) Pathinen Melkanakku describes the procedures for erecting hero stones.
(b) During the Sangam age, the Neidhal landscape followed the pastoral way of life.
(c) Pulimankombai is a village in the Kavari,river valley in Thanjavur district.
(d) Nattam, Kottai and Medu refer to the archaeological sites having mounds.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. Tholkappiyam describes the procedures for erecting herostones. ,
(b) Wrong. During the Sangam Age, the Mullai landscape followed the pastoral way of life.
(c) Wrong. Pulimankombai is a village in the Vaigai river valley in Theni district.
(d) Correct.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
(a) The Indian Treasure Trove Act was passed in the year 1972.
(b) Pandya kavataka is mentioned in Mahavamsa.
(c) Erythrean Sea refers to the water around the Mediterranean Sea.
(d) Ptolemy mentions that the Pandyas of Madurai controlled the port of Bacare on the Kerala coast.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. The Indian Treasure Trove Act was passed in the year 1878.
(b) Wrong. Pandya kavataka is mentioned in Arthasastra.
(c) Wrong. Erythrean sea refers to the water around the Red sea.
(d) Wrong. Pliny, the Elder mentions that the Pandyas of Madurai controlled the port of Bacare on the Kerala coast.

Question 4.
(a) Vienna papyrus, Roman document is in the Papyrus museum attached to the Austrian
National library Vienna (Austria).
(b) Asokan inscriptions give references to Pallavas in Tamil Brahmi script.
(c) Akathinai deals particularly with war and heroism.
(d) Kurinji refers to the sandy desert region.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. Vienna papyrus, a Greek document is in the papyrus museum attached to the Austrian National Library Vienna (Austria)
(b) Wrong. Ashokar inscriptions give references to the Cheras, Cholas and the Pandyas in Tamil Brahmi script. .
(c) Wrong. Akathinai refers to various situations of love and family life.
(d) Wrong. Kurinji refers to the hilly and mountainous region.

Question 5.
(a) The Mauryan Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya conquered Kalinga and parts of Andhra and Karnataka regions.
(b) ‘Muvendhars’ refer to the three kings of the Rashtrakutas.
(c) Coins of the Pandya kings have been found in Karur.
(d) Karikalan is a notable king among the chola kings.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. The Mauryan king Ashoka conquered Kalinga and parts of Andhra and Karnataka regions.
(b) Wrong. Muvendhar refers to the Chera, Chola, Pandya kings.
(c) Wrong. Coins of the Chera kings have been found in Karur.
(d) Correct.

Question 6.
(a) Velirs were the seven chiefs who were very unkind and stingy rulers.
(b) Nediyon and Mudathirumaran belonged to the Chera dynasty.
(c) The Chola emblem was lion and they issued square copper coins with images of a lion on the obverse, tiger and sacred symbols on the reverse.
(d) The Sangam Age society was a society in transition from a tribal community’ to a larger kingdom.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. Velirs were the seven chiefs who were very generous.
(b) Wrong. Nediyon and Mudathirumaran belonged to the Pandya dynasty.
(c) Wrong. The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger on the obverse, elephant and the sacred symbols on the reverse.
(d) Correct.

IV. Match the Following:

Question 1.
(a) Epigraphy – (i) Work on Tamil Grammar
(b) Tolkappiam – (ii) Eight anthalogies
(c) Pathinen Kilkanakku – (iii) Thiruvalluvar
(d) Ettuthogai – (iv) Inscriptions
(e) Thirukkural – (v) Manimekalai
________ – (vi) 18 minor works
Answer:
(a) – iv
(b) – i
(c) – vi
(d) – ii
(e) – iii

Question 2.
(a) Tamil-Brahmi – (i) Sangam Age port
(b) Arikkamedu – (ii) Precious metal
(c) Cameo – (iii) First script
(d) Bullion – (iv) Buddhist chronicle
(e) Mahavamsa – (v) Chanakya
________ – (vi) An ornament
Answer:
(a) – iii
(b) – i
(c) – vi
(d) – ii
(e) – iv

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
(a) National History – (i) Interior
(b) Papyrus – (ii) FiveTinais
(c) Akam – (iii) Pliny the Elder
(d) Puram – (iv) Sildppathikaram
(e) Aintinai – (v) Plant
_____ – (vi) Exterior
Answer:
(a) – iii
(b) – v
(c) – i
(d) – vi
(e) – ii

Question 4.
(a) Kurinji – (i) Riverine Tract
(b) Marutam – (ii) Coastland
(c) Mullai – (iii) Mountain
(d) Neytal – (iv) Hill Region
(e) Palai – (v) Forest
______ – Desert
Answer
(a) – iv
(b) – i
(c) – v
(d) – ii
(e) – vi

V. Answer all the questions given under eaeh caption.

Question 1.
Composition of the society.
(a) Mention the names of the clan based communities of this Sangam Age.
(b) What type of social groups do we find in the Tamil country?
(c) What type of life was led by the kings and chiefs?
(d) What was the effect of the development of agriculture and pastoral ways of life?
Answer:
(a) There were several clan-based communities such as Panar, Paratavar, Eyinar, Uzhavar,
Kanavar, Vettuvar and Maravar.
(b) In Tamil country the social groups were divided into a five situational types and related occupational patterns.
(c) The kings, chiefs and merchants led a prosperous life.
(d) The development of agriculture and pastoral ways of life might have harmed the eco-system and the naturally available forest and wild animals.

Question 2.
Sangam Age-Economy.
(a) What is the reference given in Thinai concept about the economy of the Sangam Age?
(b) What types of crops were cultivated?
(c) Mention about the industries and crafts of the Sangam age.
(d) Why were pottery produced in large numbers?
Answer:
(a) The economy was mixed as elaborated in the Thinai concept. People practiced agriculture, pastoralism, trade and money exchange, hunting and gathering and fishing depending upon the eco zones in which they lived.
(b) Crops like paddy, sugarcane, millets were cultivated. Both wet and dry land fanning were practiced
(c) In the Sangam, age there were professional groups that produced various commodities. This system of production of commodities is called industry.
(d) People used pottery produced by Kalamceyko (potters) in their daily activities and so they were made in large numbers.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
Iron smelting Industry.
(a) How was iron smelting undertaken?
(b) Where do we find the evidence?
(c) What does Sangam literature speak about this industry?
(d) Why did the people in Sangam age require iron implements?
Answer:
(a) Iron smelting was undertaken in traditional furnaces.
(b) Such furnaces with terracotta’ pipes and raw ore have been found in many archaeological sites like Kodumanal and Guttur.
(c) Sangam literature speaks of blacksmiths and their tools and activities.
(d) People required iron implements for agriculture and warfare.

Question 4.
Ornaments of the Sangam Age.
(a) Mention the ornaments worn by the poor and the rich.
(b) Mention the semi precious stones used by these people.
(c) How can you prove that gold ornaments were well known in this period?
(d) Where do we have find the evidence of glass beads industry?
Answer:
(a) While the poor worn ornaments made of clay, terracotta, iron and leaves and flowers, the ,
rich wore jewellery made of precious stones, copper and gold.
(b) Quartz, amethyst (Sewantikkal) and Camelian (Semmanikkal) were some of their precious ’ stones used for making ornaments.
(c) Gold coins from Rome were used to make jewellery. Evidence of gold smelting has been found at Pattanam in Kerala. Gold ornaments have been unearthered at the Megalithic sites of Suttukeni, Adichanallur and Kodumanal and towns of Arikkamedu, Keezhadi and , Pattanam in Kerala.
(d) Arikkamedu and Kudikkadu near Cuddalore show the evidence of glass beads industry.

Question 5.
Textiles in Sangam Age.
(a) Mention the evidence of textile production in the Sangam Age.
(b) What does literature refer about textiles in the Sangam Age?
(c) What is mentioned by periplus about textiles with Sangam Age?
(d) What were spindle whorls?
Answer:
(a) Evidence of spindle whorls and pieces of cloth have been found at Kodumanal.
(b) Literature too refers to clothes called Kalingam and other fine varieties of textiles.
(c) Periplus also mentions the fine variety of textiles produced in the Tamil region.
(d) Spindle whorls were used for making thread from cotton.

Question 6.
Emergence of Towns and ports on the Sangam Age.
(a) How did the Sangam age get urbanised?
(b) What was the work of towns?
(c) Mention a few port centres.
(d) Mention a few inland trade centres.
Answer:
(a) The Sangam age saw the first urbanisation in Tamilagam. Cities developed and they had brick buildings, roof tiles, ring wells and planned towns, streets and store houses.
(b) The towns worked as ports and artisanal centres.
(c) Arikkamedu, Kaveripoompattinam, Azhagankulam and Korkai on the east coast and Pattanam in Kerala were port centres.
(d) Kanchipuram, Uraiyur, Karur, Madurai and Kodumanal were inland trade centres.

VI. Answer the following questions briefly:

Question 1.
Mention the sources for the study of the Sangam Age.
Answer:
The sources for reconstructing the history of the Sangam age are:

  1. Classical Sangam tamil literature.
  2. Archaeological excavations and material culture
  3. Epigraphy
  4. Non-Tamil and foreign literature.

Question 2.
Name the Classical Sangam corpus.
Answer:
The Classical Sangam corpus consists of the Tholkappiyam, the Pathinen Melkanakku (18 major works) and the Pathinen Kilkanakku (18 minor works) and the five epics.

Question 3.
Write a note on Thirukkural.
Answer:
Thirukkural was composed by Thiruvalluvar. In 1330 couplets Thirukkural considers question of morality, statecraft and love.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 4.
Name the five epics of Tamil literature.
Answer:

  1. Epics or Kappiyams are long narrative compositions of very high quality.
  2. They are
    • Silappathikaaram
    • Manimekalai
    • Seevaka Chinthamani
    • Valaiyapathi
    • Kundalakesi.

Question 5.
What are inscriptions?
Answer:

  1. Inscriptions are documents written on stone, copper plates and other media such as coins,rings, etc.
  2. Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions.

Question 6.
What is pre historic period?
Answer:

  1. The period before the use of written script is called prehistoric period.
  2. The development of script marks the beginning of a historical period.

Question 7.
Mention about the first script used in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. Tamil-Brahmi was the first script used for writing in Tamil Nadu.
  2. Inscriptions in Tamil-Brahmin are found in caves and rock shelters, and on pottery and other objects (coins, rings and seals).

Question 8.
Name the sites of caves with Brahmi inscriptions.
Answer:

  1. Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found in more than 30 sites in Tamil Nadu mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters.
  2. These caves had been the abodes of monks, most by Jains.
  3. Maangulam, Muttupatti, Pugahur, Arachalur and Kongar Puliyankulam and Jambai are some of the major sites of such caves with Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.
  4. Around Madurai many such caves with Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions can still be seen.

Question 9.
What is meant by Vandalism?
Answer:

  1. Among the old inscriptions, people (both local and tourists) have marked their names thereby destroying some of the ancient inscriptions.
  2. Such acts of destruction of heritage property belonging to others are called Vandalism.

Question 10.
What were hero stones?
Answer:

  1. Hero stones were memorials erected for those who lost their lives in battles and in cattle raids.
  2. As cattle were considered an important source of wealth, raiding cattle owned by adjoining tribes and clans was common practice in a pastoral society.
  3. Tribal chieftains plundered the cattle wealth of enemies whose warriors fought to protect their cattle.
  4. Many warriors died in such battles and were remembered as martyrs.
  5. Memorial stones were erected in their honour.

Question 11.
State the importance of the Pulimankombai Hero stones.
Answer:

  1. Pulimankombai is a village in the Vaigai river valley in Theni district.
  2. In 2006, rare hero stone inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi script were discovered in this village.
  3. One of the inscriptions from Pulimankombai reads to this effect. “The stone of Tiyan Antavan who was killed in a cattle raid at the village of Kadalur.”

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 12.
Mention the proof indicating that early Tamils had trade contacts with West Asia and beyond.
Answer:
Pottery inscribed with names in Tamil Brahmi script have been found in Berenike and Quseir al Qadhim in Egypt and in Khor Rori in Oman indicating that early Tamils had trade contacts with west Asia and beyond.

Question 13.
Explain the term Prakrit.
Answer:

  1. Prakrit was the language used by the common people in the Northern part of India during the Mauryan period.
  2. People engraved their names on pottery to indicate ownership.
  3. Many of the names engraved in Tamil and some in Prakrit.

Question 14.
Mention the sites of the archaeological excavations of the Sangam age. :
Answer:

  1. Archaeological excavations at’the early historic sites have been the source of evidence of
    the activities of the Sangam age people.
  2. Excavations at Arikkamedu, Azhagankulam, Keezhadi, Kodumanal, Uvaiyur, Kanchipuram. Kaveripumpattinam, Korkai, Vasavasamudiram in Tamil Nadu and Pattanam in Kerala have provided all the evidence we have of this period.

Question 15.
What does the term Archaeological excavation refer to?
Answer:
Archeological excavation refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring and interpreting societies of the past.

Question 16.
What is Thinai?
Answer:

  1. Thinai is a poetic theme, which means a class or category.
  2. It refers to a habitat or ecozone with specific physiographical characteristics.
  3. The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil Grammar work of Tholkappiyam.
  4. Sangam poems are set in these specific ecozones and reveal the human life has deep relationships with nature.

Question 17.
Name the five Thinais.
Answer:
The five landscapes are called together Ainthinai.

  1. Kurinji – referring to the hilly and mountainous region,
  2. Mullai – referring to forested and pastoral region,
  3. Marutham – referring to the riverine vally.
  4. Neythal – referring to coastal land,
  5. Paalai – referring to sandy desert like land.

Question 18.
How can we say that the Tamils were independent of Mauryan authority? [HOTS]
Answer:

  1. The Mauryan king Asoka, conquered Kalinga (Odisha) and parts of what is present day
    Andhra and Karnataka regions.
  2. Ashokan inscriptions found in present day Odisha, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh are not seen in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  3. Therefore, we may conclude that the Tamil rulers independent of Mauryan authority.

Question 19.
Mention the names of Velirs.
Answer:

  1. Velirs of the Sangam age were chieftains.
  2. They occupied territories on the margins of the Muvendhars.
  3. The velirs use the seven chiefs Pari, Kari, Ori, Nalli, Pegan, Ai and Athiyaman.
  4. Sangam poems were extensively about the generosity of these velirs.

Question 20.
Write about the Tamil Society of the Sangam times.
Answer:

  1. There were several Clan – based communities including groups such as Panar, Paratavar, Eyinar, Uzhavar, Kanavar, Vettuvar, and Maravar.
  2. The society was not too strictly or clearly stratified.
  3. But there existed ranks and higher social groups.
  4. The Vendhars, chiefs and their associates formed the higher social groups.
  5. There were priets who were known as Antanars.
  6. There were artisan groups specialising in pottery and blacksmithy.

Question 21.
What information do we get about the women of the Sangam Age.
Answer:

  1. Women were frequently referred to in Tamil texts as mothers, heroines and foster-mothers.
  2. Women from Panar families, dancers, poets, and royal women were all portrayed in Sangam literature.
  3. There are references to women from all five eco zones.
  4. There are references to women protecting Thinai fields from birds and Umanar women selling salt showing that women were involved in primary production.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

VII. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Write a note on Tamil Brahmi inscriptions.
Answer:

  1. Inscriptions are documents scripted on stone, copper plates and other media such as coins, rings etc.
  2. Tamil Brahmi was the first script used for writing in Tamil Nadu.
  3. Inscriptions in Tamil-Brahmi are found in caves and rock shelters and on pottery and other objects like coins, rings, seals etc.
  4. Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found in more than 30 sites in Tamil Nadu, mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters.
  5. These caves were the abodes of Jain monks.
  6. The natural caves were converted into residence by cutting a drip-line to keep rain water away from the cave.
  7. Inscriptions often occur below such driplines.
  8. The sites have smooth stone beds carved on rock surface for monks.
  9. Maangulam, Muttupatti, Pugalur, Arachalur and Kongarpuliyankulam and Jambai are some of the major sites of such caves with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions.
  10. Around Madurai many such caves with the Tamil Brahmi inscriptions can be still seen. Many of them are located along ancient trade routes.

Question 2.
What information do the archaeologists give regarding the material culture and coins of the Sangam Age?
Answer:
(a) Material culture

  1. Archaeologists have found evidence of brick structures and industrial activities, as well as, artefacts such as beads, bangles, cameos, intaglios and other materials in this site.
  2. Tamil Brahmi inscriptions on pottery and coins have also been unearthered.
  3. Evidences of the various arts, crafts and industries together help us to reconstruct the ways of life the people of those times.
  4. We can also understand how they might have lived.
  5. Cameo was an ornament made in precious stone where images are carved on the surface.
  6. Intaglio was an ornament in which images were carved as recess, below the surface.

(b) Coins :

  1. Coins as medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the sangam age.
  2. The coins of the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas, punch marked coins and roman
    coins form another important source of evidence from the Sangam Age.
  3. Punch marked coins have been found at Kodumanal and Bodinayakkanur.
  4. Roman coins are concentrated in the Coimbatore region.
  5. These coins are found in Azhagankulam, Karur and Madurai.
  6. They were used as Bullion for their metal value and as ornaments.
  7. Bullion means precious metal available in the form of ingots.
  8. Punch-marked coins are the earliest coins used in India.
  9. They were mostly made of silver and have numerous symbols punched on them.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

Question 3.
Can we say Sangam age a golden age? Why?
Answer:

  1. Sangam age in Tamil Nadu witnessed prosperity in all spheres of life.
  2. There was a well organised society.
  3. Agriculture, pearl fishing and weaving were some of the important occupations of the „ people.
  4. Fine arts like music, dance, drama and painting flourished.
  5. The women of the Sangam age enjoyed respectable position.
  6. They developed internal and overseas trade.
  7. The ancient Tamils were religious minded.
  8. The Sangam monarchs gave importance to justice.
  9. Sangam literature is the reflection of the Tamil life and a store house of the noble human thoughts, which are the source of inspiration for the medieval and modem poets.
  10. Hence the Sangam age or Era can be styled as the golden age of Tamil History.

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