Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.
Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Early Tamil Society and Culture Text Book Back Questions and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer:
The name of the script used in the Sangam Age.
The Sri Lankan chronicle composed in the Pali language mentioning about merchants and horse traders from Tamil Nadu
(a) Deepa vamsa
The notable Chola king credited with bringing forest lands under the plough and developing irrigational facilities
(b) Rajarajan I
(d) Rajendran I
The inscription that mentions the Cheras
The famous Venetian traveller who described Kayal as a great and noble city
(a) Vasco da gama
(c) Marco Polo
(c) Marco Polo
(i) Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam Age.
(ii) Prakrit was the language used by the common people in Northern India during the Mauryan period.
(iii) Vienna Papyrus, a Roman document, mentions trade related to Muziri.
(iv) The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil grammar work of Pathupaattu.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct
(d) (iii) and (iv) is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct
(i) Pathitrupathu speaks about the Pandya kings and their territory.
(ii) The Akanaanuru describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinum.
(iii) The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger.
(iv) Neythal is a sandy desert region.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
II. Fill in the blanks
- _______ are document scripted on stones, copper plates, coins, and rings
- ______ refers to systematically digging a site to recovery material evidence for exploring societies of the past
- ______ the classic work of economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya during the Mauryan period
- ________ is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to habitat or eco-zone with specific physiographical characteristics.
- ______ referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans, and West Asian people.
- Archaeological Excavation
III. Find out the correct statement
(a) Evidence of iron smelting has been found in Kodumanal and Guttur.
(b) Periplus of Erythren Sea mentions the pepper trade with India.
(c) Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of gold.
(d) The Sangam Age has its roots in the Bronze Age.
(b) Wrong. Pliny mentions the pepper trade with India.
(c) Wrong. Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of Silver.
(d) Wrong. The Sangam Age has its roots in the Iron Age
(a) The Cheras ruled over the Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.
(b) The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention the King Karikalan.
(c) The terms Vanikan and Nigama appear in Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions were different types of merchants.
(d) Salt merchants were called Vanikars and they travelled in bullock carts along with their family.
(a) Wrong. The Cholas ruled over the Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.
(b) Wrong. The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention King Nedunchezhian.
(c) Correct. The term Vanikan denotes a trader, Nigama means a Guild. There were different types of merchants.
(d) Wrong. Salt merchants were called Umanars and they traveling in bullock carts along with their family.
IV. Match the following
- Epigraphy – (i) a narrative text presenting the important historical events
- Chronicle – (ii) a Sangam Age port
- Pastoralism – (iii) an ornament made in a precious stone.
- Cameo – (iv) the study of inscriptions
- Arikkamedu – (v) nomadic people earning a livelihood by rearing cattle.
- – iv
- – i
- – v
- – iii
- – ii
V. Answer the following questions briefly
Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history – Discuss.
- Archaeological sites have mounds which are an accumulation of soil, pottery, building, and organic remains and objects.
- Archaeological excavation refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring and interpreting societies of the past.
How important coin as a source of evidence for the study of the Sangam Age?
- Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Sangam age.
- The coins of the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas punch marked coins and Roman coins form an important source of evidence from the Sangam Age.
- Punch-marked coins have been found at Kodumanal and Bodinayakkanur.
- Roman coins are concentrated in the Coimbatore region and are found at Azhagankulam, Karar, and Madurai.
Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in the Sangam Age. Give reasons.
- Crops like paddy, sugarcane, millets were cultivated. Both wet and dryland farming was practiced.
- In the riverine and tank irrigated areas paddy was cultivated.
- Millets were cultivated in the drylands. So Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in the Sangam Age.
Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support.
- Tamil country had connections with countries overseas both in the east and west.
- Roman ships used monsoon winds to cross the Western sea or the Arabian Sea to connect Tamilagam with the Western World.
- Spices including pepper, ivory, and precious stones were exported.
- Metal including gold, silver and copper, and precious stones were imported.
- Indian pottery has been discovered at Berenike, a port on the Red Sea coast.
- A stone with the name “Perumpatankal” has been found at Khuan Luk Pat, Thailand. Southeast Asia was known as Suvama Bhumi in Tamil Literature.
VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption
a. What was the common practice in a pastoral society?
b. Who plundered the cattle wealth of enemies?
c. How were the dead warriors remembered?
d. Which Tamil text describes the procedures for erecting hero stones?
a. As cattle were considered an important source of wealth, raiding cattle owned by adjoining tribes and clans were common practices in a pastoral society.
b. Tribal chieftains plundered the cattle wealth of enemies.
c. Memorial stones were erected in their honour.
d. Tholkappiyam describes the procedures for erecting herostones.
Non – Tamil Sources (Foreign Accounts)
a. What does the presence of the non-Tamil sources reveal?
b. Name the classic work of the Mauryan period that makes a mention that the pearl and shells came from Pandya country.
c. What is a chronicle?
d. Who speaks about the pepper trade between the Roman empire and India?
a. The presence of the non-Tamil sources reveals the extensive contacts and interactions of the early Tamil society with the outside world.
b. Arthashastra, the classic work of the Mauryan period refers to Pandya Kavataka.
c. Chronicle is a narrative text presenting the important historical events in chronological order.
d. Pliny speaks about the pepper trade with India and he states that it took 40 days to reach India.
Industries and Crafts of the Sangam Age
a. What were the important aspects of urbanisation?
b. What is the Tamil name for a potter?
c. What were the different types of pottery used by the people?
d. Identify the Iron implements required for agriculture and warfare
a. Craft production and craft specialisation were important aspects of Urbanisation.
b. Kalamceyko means potters.
c. Blackware, russet-coated painted ware, black and redware potteries were the different types of pottery used.
d. Iron implements for agriculture – Hand sickle, Big sickle, chopper, and ax. Iron implements for warfare: Swords, spears, daggers, etc.
VII. Answer the following in detail.
To what extent do you think the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam Age polity?
Sangam Age Polity:
- The Sangam age has its roots in the Iron Age.
- In the Iron age, people were organised into chiefdoms.
- From such communities of Iron Age emerged the Vendhars of the early historic period and the Velirs of the Sangam Age were Chieftains.
- Among the political powers of the Sangam Age, the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas occupied pre-eminent positions.
- They were known as Muvendhar.
- The Muvendhar controlled the major towns and ports of the Sangam period.
- The Cheras called Keralaputras controlled the region of present day Kerala and also the Western parts of Tamil Nadu.
- The Silappathikaram speaks about Cheran Senguttuvan.
- The Cholas ruled over the Kaveri delta and the Northern parts of Tamil Nadu.
- Pattinappalai is a long poem about Kaveripoompattinam.
- Silappadhikaram describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinam.
- The Pandyas who ruled over the Southern part of Tamil Nadu are referred to in the Ashokan inscriptions.
- The Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription mentions King Nedunchezhian.
- Apart from the Vendhars, there were Velirs and numerous chieftains who occupied territories on the margins of the Muvendhar.
Indicate how the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contribute to their economy.
Craft production and craft specialization were important aspects of urbanization.
- In the Sangam Age, there were professional groups that produced various commodities. The system of production of commodities is called industry.
- Pottery was practised in many settlements.
- Iron manufacturing was an important artisanal activity. Iron implements were required for agriculture and Warfare.
- The Sangam Age people had the knowledge of Stone ornaments, Gold jewellery, Glass beads, etc.
- The Pamban coast is famous for pearl fishery. Sangam literature describes women wearing shell bangles.
- Textile production was another important occupation. Periplus mentions the fine variety of textiles produced in the Tamil region.
- Trade and exchange were important for people to have access to different commodities. Specialised groups called Vanikars travelled in groups trading goods and commodities between regions.
- Akanaanuru poem 149 describes the trading at the port of Muciri as follows: “the well-crafted ships of the Yavana came with gold returned with pepper at the wealthy port of Muciri”
- Barter was the primary mode of exchange. For instance, rice was exchanged for fish.
- Salt was precious and a handful of it would fetch an equal amount of rice.
Thus the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contributed to their economy.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Early Tamil Society and Culture Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Choose the best answer
The earliest written work on Tamil grammar is ___________
Pathupattu includes ___________ long songs
Pathinen Kilkanakku comprises of ___________ texts.
Epigraphy is the study of ___________
Description of the procedures for erecting herostones is given in ___________
(d) Kurinji pattu
The Sangam Age port Arikkamedu is near ___________
Arthasastra was written by ___________
Erythrean sea refers to the waters around the ___________
(a) Red sea
(b) Mediterranean sea
(c) Black sea
(d) Caspian sea
(a) Red sea
The book Natural History was written in ___________
Hermapollon was a ___________
Muvendars belonged to ______ Period
The Cheras controlled the region of present day ___________
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Tamil Nadu
Aivananel was a type of ___________
Kalamceyko were ___________
Suvarna Boomi in Tamil literature referred to ___________
(a) North East Asia
(b) Southeast Asia
(c) South West Asia
(d) northwest Asia
(b) Southeast Asia
(i) Tamil-Brahmi was the first script used for writing in Tamil Nadu
(ii) The Archaeological survey of India (ASI) is a state government agency.
(iii) Cameo was the metal used for making vessels.
(iv) Punch-marked coins have been found in Keezhadi.
(a) (i) is correct.
(b) (ii) and (iii) correct.
(c) (ii) and (iv) correct.
(d) (i) and (iv) correct.
(a) (i) is correct.
(i) The bow and arrow was the symbol of the Cholas.
(ii) River Kaveri drains into the Arabian Sea.
(iii) Pandyan rulers patronized Tamil Sangam.
(a) (i), (ii) and (iii) is correct.
(b) (i) is correct.
(c) (ii) is correct.
(d) (iii) is correct.
(d) (iii) is correct
(i) Kodumanal is located near Erode in Tamil Nadu.
(ii) Rural centres have a larger population involved in non-agrarian, commercial and political occupation.
(iii) Sangam age people were ignorant about shell bangles and glass beads.
(a) is correct.
(b) (i) and (iii) is correct
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) is correct.
(d) (ii) and (iii) is correct.
(b) (i) and (iii) is correct
II. Fill in the Blanks:
- The earliest written work on Tamil Grammar is ___________
- The long narrative poem of very high quality is called an ___________
- Hero stones of the Pallava period occur in large numbers around the Chengam region near ___________ District.
- In the Northern part of India during the Mauryan period, the common people used the language ___________
- Arikkamedu near Puducherry is a Sangam Age ___________
- Periplus of Erythrean Sea is an ancient ___________ text.
- Vienna Papyrus, a greek document datable to the second-century C.E mentions about ___________ trade of olden days.
- The plant extensively used for writing in ancient Egypt was ___________
- Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas together were called ___________
- Cheran Senguttuvan built temple for ___________
III. Find out the Correct Statement:
(a) The classical Sangam corpus consists of the Tholkappiyam, the Pathinen Melkanakku and the Pathinen Kilkanakku only.
(b) There are 1300 couplets in Thirukkural.
(c) The development of script marks the beginning of the historical period.
(d) In Tamil Nadu Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters. These caves were the abodes of Buddhist monks.
(a) Wrong. The classical Sangam Corpus consists of the Tholkappiyam, The Pathinen Melkanakku, Pathinen Kilkanakku and the Five epics.
(b) Wrong. There are 1330 complets in Thirukkural.
(d) Wrong. In Tamil Nadu, Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions have been found mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters. These caves were the abodes of mostly Jain monks.
(a) Pathinen Melkanakku describes the procedures for erecting hero stones.
(b) During the Sangam age, the Neidhal landscape followed the pastoral way of life.
(c) Pulimankombai is a village in the Kavari river valley in Thanjavur district.
(d) Nattam, Kottai, and Medu refer to the archaeological sites having mounds.
(a) Wrong. Tholkappiyam describes the procedures for erecting herostones. ,
(b) Wrong. During the Sangam Age, the Mullai landscape followed the pastoral way of life.
(c) Wrong. Pulimankombai is a village in the Vaigai river valley in the Theni district.
(a) The Indian Treasure Trove Act was passed in the year 1972.
(b) Pandya kavataka is mentioned in Mahavamsa.
(c) Erythrean Sea refers to the water around the Mediterranean Sea.
(d) Ptolemy mentions that the Pandyas of Madurai controlled the port of Bacare on the Kerala coast.
(a) Wrong. The Indian Treasure Trove Act was passed in the year 1878.
(b) Wrong. Pandya kavataka is mentioned in Arthasastra.
(c) Wrong. Erythrean sea refers to the water around the Red sea.
(d) Wrong. Pliny, the Elder mentions that the Pandyas of Madurai controlled the port of Bacare on the Kerala coast.
(a) Vienna papyrus, Roman document is in the Papyrus museum attached to the Austrian
National library Vienna (Austria).
(b) Asokan inscriptions give references to Pallavas in Tamil Brahmi script.
(c) Akathinai deals particularly with war and heroism.
(d) Kurinji refers to the sandy desert region.
(a) Wrong. Vienna papyrus, a Greek document is in the papyrus museum attached to the Austrian National Library Vienna (Austria)
(b) Wrong. Ashokar inscriptions give references to the Cheras, Cholas, and the Pandyas in Tamil Brahmi script. .
(c) Wrong. Akathinai refers to various situations of love and family life.
(d) Wrong. Kurinji refers to the hilly and mountainous region.
(a) The Mauryan Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya conquered Kalinga and parts of Andhra and Karnataka regions.
(b) ‘Muvendhars’ refer to the three kings of the Rashtrakutas.
(c) Coins of the Pandya kings have been found in Karur.
(d) Karikalan is a notable king among the Chola kings.
(a) Wrong. The Mauryan king Ashoka conquered Kalinga and parts of Andhra and Karnataka regions.
(b) Wrong. Muvendhar refers to the Chera, Chola, Pandya kings.
(c) Wrong. Coins of the Chera kings have been found in Karur.
(a) Velirs were the seven chiefs who were very unkind and stingy rulers.
(b) Nediyon and Mudathirumaran belonged to the Chera dynasty.
(c) The Chola emblem was lion and they issued square copper coins with images of a lion on the obverse, tiger and sacred symbols on the reverse.
(d) The Sangam Age society was a society in transition from a tribal community’ to a larger kingdom.
(a) Wrong. Velirs were the seven chiefs who were very generous.
(b) Wrong. Nediyon and Mudathirumaran belonged to the Pandya dynasty.
(c) Wrong. The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger on the obverse, elephant, and the sacred symbols on the reverse.
IV. Match the Following:
(a) Epigraphy – (i) Work on Tamil Grammar
(b) Tolkappiam – (ii) Eight anthalogies
(c) Pathinen Kilkanakku – (iii) Thiruvalluvar
(d) Ettuthogai – (iv) Inscriptions
(e) Thirukkural – (v) Manimekalai
________ – (vi) 18 minor works
(a) – iv
(b) – i
(c) – vi
(d) – ii
(e) – iii
(a) Tamil-Brahmi – (i) Sangam Age port
(b) Arikkamedu – (ii) Precious metal
(c) Cameo – (iii) First script
(d) Bullion – (iv) Buddhist chronicle
(e) Mahavamsa – (v) Chanakya
________ – (vi) An ornament
(a) – iii
(b) – i
(c) – vi
(d) – ii
(e) – iv
(a) National History – (i) Interior
(b) Papyrus – (ii) FiveTinais
(c) Akam – (iii) Pliny the Elder
(d) Puram – (iv) Sildppathikaram
(e) Aintinai – (v) Plant
_____ – (vi) Exterior
(a) – iii
(b) – v
(c) – i
(d) – vi
(e) – ii
(a) Kurinji – (i) Riverine Tract
(b) Marutam – (ii) Coastland
(c) Mullai – (iii) Mountain
(d) Neytal – (iv) Hill Region
(e) Palai – (v) Forest
______ – Desert
(a) – iv
(b) – i
(c) – v
(d) – ii
(e) – vi
V. Answer all the questions given under eaeh caption.
Composition of society.
(a) Mention the names of the clan based communities of this Sangam Age.
(b) What type of social groups do we find in the Tamil country?
(c) What type of life was led by the kings and chiefs?
(d) What was the effect of the development of agriculture and pastoral ways of life?
(a) There were several clan-based communities such as Panar, Paratavar, Eyinar, Uzhavar,
Kanavar, Vettuvar, and Maravar.
(b) In Tamil country the social groups were divided into five situational types and related occupational patterns.
(c) The kings, chiefs, and merchants led a prosperous life.
(d) The development of agriculture and pastoral ways of life might have harmed the eco-system and the naturally available forest and wild animals.
(a) What is the reference given in Thinai concept about the economy of the Sangam Age?
(b) What types of crops were cultivated?
(c) Mention the industries and crafts of the Sangam age.
(d) Why were pottery produced in large numbers?
(a) The economy was mixed as elaborated in the Thinai concept. People practiced agriculture, pastoralism, trade and money exchange, hunting and gathering, and fishing depending upon the ecozones in which they lived.
(b) Crops like paddy, sugarcane, millets were cultivated. Both wet and dry land fanning was practiced
(c) In the Sangam, age there were professional groups that produced various commodities. This system of production of commodities is called industry.
(d) People used pottery produced by Kalamceyko (potters) in their daily activities and so they were made in large numbers.
Iron smelting Industry.
(a) How was iron smelting undertaken?
(b) Where do we find the evidence?
(c) What does Sangam literature speak about this industry?
(d) Why did the people in the Sangam age require iron implements?
(a) Iron smelting was undertaken in traditional furnaces.
(b) Such furnaces with terracotta pipes and raw ore have been found in many archaeological sites like Kodumanal and Guttur.
(c) Sangam literature speaks of blacksmiths and their tools and activities.
(d) People required iron implements for agriculture and warfare.
Ornaments of the Sangam Age.
(a) Mention the ornaments worn by the poor and the rich.
(b) Mention the semi precious stones used by these people.
(c) How can you prove that gold ornaments were well known in this period?
(d) Where do we have to find evidence of the glass beads industry?
(a) While the poorly worn ornaments made of clay, terracotta, iron, and leaves, and flowers, the rich wore jewellery made of precious stones, copper, and gold.
(b) Quartz, amethyst (Sewantikkal), and Camelina (Semmanikkal) were some of their precious ’ stones used for making ornaments.
(c) Gold coins from Rome were used to make jewellery. Evidence of gold smelting has been found at Pattanam in Kerala. Gold ornaments have been unearthered at the Megalithic sites of Suttukeni, Adichanallur, and Kodumanal and towns of Arikkamedu, Keezhadi, and Pattanam in Kerala.
(d) Arikkamedu and Kudikkadu near Cuddalore show the evidence of the glass beads industry.
Textiles in Sangam Age.
(a) Mention the evidence of textile production in the Sangam Age.
(b) What does literature refer to textiles in the Sangam Age?
(c) What is mentioned by periplus about textiles with Sangam Age?
(d) What were spindle whorls?
(a) Evidence of spindle whorls and pieces of cloth have been found at Kodumanal.
(b) Literature refers to clothes called Kalingam and other fine varieties of textiles.
(c) Periplus also mentions the fine variety of textiles produced in the Tamil region.
(d) Spindle whorls were used for making thread from cotton.
Emergence of Towns and ports on the Sangam Age.
(a) How did the Sangam age get urbanised?
(b) What was the work of towns?
(c) Mention a few port centres.
(d) Mention a few inland trade centres.
(a) The Sangam age saw the first urbanisation in Tamilagam. Cities developed and they had brick buildings, roof tiles, ring wells, and planned towns, streets, and storehouses.
(b) The towns worked as ports and artisanal centres.
(c) Arikkamedu, Kaveripoompattinam, Azhagankulam and Korkai on the east coast and Pattanam in Kerala were port centres.
(d) Kanchipuram, Uraiyur, Karur, Madurai and Kodumanal were inland trade centres.
VI. Answer the following questions briefly:
Mention the sources for the study of the Sangam Age.
The sources for reconstructing the history of the Sangam age are:
- Classical Sangam tamil literature.
- Archaeological excavations and material culture
- Non-Tamil and foreign literature.
Name the Classical Sangam corpus.
The Classical Sangam corpus consists of the Tholkappiyam, the Pathinen Melkanakku (18 major works) and the Pathinen Kilkanakku (18 minor works) and the five epics.
Write a note on Thirukkural.
Thirukkural was composed by Thiruvalluvar. In 1330 couplets Thirukkural considers the question of morality, statecraft, and love.
Name the five epics of Tamil literature.
Epics or Kappiyams are long narrative compositions of very high quality. They are
- Seevaka Chinthamani
What are inscriptions?
- Inscriptions are documents written on stone, copper plates and other media such as coins, rings, etc.
- Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions.
What is a prehistoric period?
- The period before the use of a written script is called a prehistoric period.
- The development of the script marks the beginning of a historical period.
Mention the first script used in Tamil Nadu.
- Tamil-Brahmi was the first script used for writing in Tamil Nadu.
- Inscriptions in Tamil-Brahmin are found in caves and rock shelters, and on pottery and other objects (coins, rings, and seals).
Name the sites of caves with Brahmi inscriptions.
- Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found in more than 30 sites in Tamil Nadu mostly on cave surfaces and rock shelters.
- These caves had been the abodes of monks, most by Jains.
- Maangulam, Muttupatti, Pugahur, Arachalur and Kongar Puliyankulam, and Jambai are some of the major sites of such caves with Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.
- Around Madurai, many such caves with Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions can still be seen.
What is meant by Vandalism?
- Among the old inscriptions, people (both local and tourists) have marked their names thereby destroying some of the ancient inscriptions.
- Such acts of destruction of heritage property belonging to others are called Vandalism.
What were hero stones?
- Hero stones were memorials erected for those who lost their lives in battles and in cattle raids.
- As cattle were considered an important source of wealth, raiding cattle owned by adjoining tribes and clans was common practice in a pastoral society.
- Tribal chieftains plundered the cattle wealth of enemies whose warriors fought to protect their cattle.
- Many warriors died in such battles and were remembered as martyrs.
- Memorial stones were erected in their honour.
State the importance of the Pulimankombai Hero stones.
- Pulimankombai is a village in the Vaigai river valley in the Theni district.
- In 2006, rare hero stone inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi script were discovered in this village.
- One of the inscriptions from Pulimankombai reads to this effect. “The stone of Tiyan Antavan who was killed in a cattle raid at the village of Kadalur.”
Mention the proof indicating that early Tamils had trade contacts with West Asia and beyond.
Pottery inscribed with names in Tamil Brahmi script have been found in Berenike and Quseir al Qadhim in Egypt and in Khor Rori in Oman indicating that early Tamils had trade contacts with west Asia and beyond.
Explain the term Prakrit.
- Prakrit was the language used by the common people in the Northern part of India during the Mauryan period.
- People engraved their names on pottery to indicate ownership.
- Many of the names engraved in Tamil and some in Prakrit.
Mention the sites of the archaeological excavations of the Sangam age. :
- Archaeological excavations at’the early historic sites have been the source of evidence of
the activities of the Sangam age people.
- Excavations at Arikkamedu, Azhagankulam, Keezhadi, Kodumanal, Uvaiyur, Kanchipuram. Kaveripumpattinam, Korkai, Vasavasamudiram in Tamil Nadu, and Pattanam in Kerala have provided all the evidence we have of this period.
What does the term Archaeological excavation refer to?
Archeological excavation refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring and interpreting societies of the past.
What is Thinai?
- Thinai is a poetic theme, which means a class or category.
- It refers to habitat or ecozone with specific physiographical characteristics.
- The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil Grammar work of Tholkappiyam.
- Sangam poems are set in these specific ecozones and reveal the human life has deep relationships with nature.
Name the five Thinais.
The five landscapes are called together Ainthinai.
- Kurinji – referring to the hilly and mountainous region,
- Mullai – referring to forested and pastoral region,
- Marutham – referring to the riverine vally.
- Neythal – referring to coastal land,
- Paalai – referring to sandy desert like land.
How can we say that the Tamils were independent of Mauryan authority? [HOTS]
- The Mauryan king Asoka, conquered Kalinga (Odisha) and parts of what is present-day Andhra and Karnataka regions.
- Ashokan inscriptions found in present day Odisha, Karnataka, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh are not seen in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- Therefore, we may conclude that the Tamil rulers independent of Mauryan authority.
Mention the names of Velirs.
- Velirs of the Sangam age were chieftains.
- They occupied territories on the margins of the Muvendhars.
- The velirs use the seven chiefs Pari, Kari, Ori, Nalli, Pegan, Ai, and Athiyaman.
- Sangam poems were extensively about the generosity of this velirs.
Write about the Tamil Society of the Sangam times.
- There were several Clan – based communities including groups such as Panar, Paratavar, Eyinar, Uzhavar, Kanavar, Vettuvar, and Maravar.
- The society was not too strictly or clearly stratified.
- But there existed ranks and higher social groups.
- The Vendhars, chiefs, and their associates formed the higher social groups.
- There were priets who were known as Antanars.
- There were artisan groups specializing in pottery and blacksmithy.
What information do we get about the women of the Sangam Age.
- Women were frequently referred to in Tamil texts as mothers, heroines, and foster-mothers.
- Women from Panar families, dancers, poets, and royal women were all portrayed in Sangam literature.
- There are references to women from all five ecozones.
- There are references to women protecting Thinai fields from birds and Umanar women selling salt showing that women were involved in primary production.
VII. Answer the following in detail:
Explain the “Archaeological sites”.
(i) Archaeological excavation refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring and interpreting societies of the past.
(ii) Archaeological excavations at the early historic sites are the source of evidence of the activities of the Sangam Age people.
(iii) Excavations at Arikkamedu, Azhagankulam, Uraiyur, Kanchipuram, Kaveripoom pattinam, Korkai, Vasavasamudram, Keezhadi, Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu, and Pattanam in Kerala provide the evidence we have of this period.
(iv) Arikkamedu, near Puducherry, is a Sangam Age port, excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). British archaeologist, Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler, French Archaeologist, J.M. Casal, and Indian archaeologists, A. Ghosh and Krishna Deva excavated this site. They found evidence of a planned town, warehouse, streets, tanks and ring wells.
What information do the archaeologists give regarding the material culture and coins of the Sangam Age?
(a) Material culture:
- Archaeologists have found evidence of brick structures and industrial activities, as well as, artefacts such as beads, bangles, cameos, intaglios, and other materials in this site.
- Tamil Brahmi inscriptions on pottery and coins have also been unearthered.
- Evidence of the various arts, crafts, and industries together help us to reconstruct the ways of life of the people of those times.
- We can also understand how they might have lived.
- Cameo was an ornament made in precious stone where images are carved on the surface.
- Intaglio was an ornament in which images were carved as recess, below the surface.
- Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the sangam age.
- The coins of the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas punch marked coins and roman coins form another important source of evidence from the Sangam Age.
- Punch-marked coins have been found at Kodumanal and Bodinayakkanur.
- Roman coins are concentrated in the Coimbatore region.
- These coins are found in Azhagankulam, Karur and Madurai.
- They were used as Bullion for their metal value and as ornaments.
- Bullion means precious metal available in the form of ingots.
- Punch-marked coins are the earliest coins used in India.
- They were mostly made of silver and have numerous symbols punched on them.
Can we say the Sangam age a golden age? Why?
- Sangam age in Tamil Nadu witnessed prosperity in all spheres of life.
- There was a well organised society.
- Agriculture, pearl fishing, and weaving were some of the important occupations of the „ people.
- Fine arts like music, dance, drama, and painting flourished.
- The women of the Sangam age enjoyed a respectable position.
- They developed internal and overseas trade.
- The ancient Tamils were religious minded.
- The Sangam monarchs gave importance to justice.
- Sangam literature is the reflection of Tamil life and a storehouse of noble human thoughts, which are the source of inspiration for the medieval and modem poets.
- Hence the Sangam age or Era can be styled as the golden age of Tamil History.