Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Employment in India and Tamilnadu Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
We take age group ______ years for computation of the workforce.
(a) 12 – 60
(b) 15 – 60
(c) 21 – 65
(d) 5 – 14
Answer:
(b) 15 – 60

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 2.
Which is the correct sequence of various sectors in GDP of India in the descending order?
(a) Primary sector, Secondary sector, Tertiary sector
(b) Primary sector, Tertiary sector, Secondary sector
(c) Tertiary sector, Secondary sector, Primary sector
(d) Secondary sector, Tertiary sector, Primary sector
Answer:
(c) Tertiary sector, Secondary sector, Primary sector

Question 3.
Which one of the following sectors is the largest employer in India?
(a) Primary Sector
(b) Secondary Sector
(c) Tertiary Sector
(d) Public sector
Answer:
(a) Primary Sector

Question 4.
Which one of the following is not in Primary Sector?
(a) Agriculture
(b) Manufacturing
(c) Mining
(d) fishery
Answer:
(a) manufacturing

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 5.
Which one of the following is not in the Secondary Sector?
(a) Construction
(b) manufacturin
(c) Small Scale Industry
(d) forestry
Answer:
(a) Forestry

Question 6.
Tertiary Sector include/s
(a) Transport
(b) insurance
(c) banking
(d) all of these
Answer:
(a) all of these

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 7.
Which sector is not included in the occupational pattern?
(a) Primary sector
(b) Secondary sector
(c) Tertiary sector
(d) Private sector
answer :
(a)private sector

Question 8.
Match the List I with List II using the codes given below:

(a) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Mining – 1. Unorganised sector
(b) Manufacturing, Electricity, Gas and Water Supply – 2. Service Sector
(c) Trade, Transport and Communication – 3. Secondary sector
(d) Unincorporated Enterprises and Household industries – 4. Primary Sector
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Question 9.
Which Delhi Sultan of medieval India formed ‘Employment Bureau’ to solve the unemployment problem.
(a) Muhamad Bin Tugluq
(b) Allauddin Khilji
(c) Feroz Shah Tugluq
(d) Balban
Answer:
(d ) Feroz Shah Tugluq

Question 10.
_____sector is registered and follows government rules.
(a) Agriculture
(b) Organised
(c) Unorganised
(d)private
answer:
(b)organised

Question 11.
_______sector provides job security and higher wages.
(a) Public sector
(b) Organised sector
(c) Unorganised sector
(d) Private sector
answer :
(b)organised sector

Question 12.
Find the odd one
(a)banking
(b) Railways
(c)insurance
(d) Small Scale Industry
Answer:
(d) Small Scale Industry

Question 13.
The sectors are classified into Public and Private sectors on the basis of
(a) number of workers employed
(b) nature of economic activity
(c) ownership of enterprises
(d) employment conditions
Answer :
(c) ownership of enterprises

Question 14
Assertion (A) : The unorganised sector of the economy characterised by the household manufacturing activity and small-scale industry.
Reason (R): Jobs here are low paid and often not regular
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)]

Question 15.
People who employ workers and pay rewards for their work is termed as .
(a) employee
(b) employer
(c) labour
(d) caretaker
Answer:
(b) employer

Question 16.
_____ continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu.
(a) Agriculture
(b) Manufacturing
(c) Banking
(d) Small Scale Industry
Answer:
(a) Agriculture

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. In_____sector, the employment terms are not fixed and regular
  2. Economic activities are classified into_____ and____ sectors.
  3. _____ has always featured as an important element of development policy in India.
  4. Employment pattern changes due to_________
  5. The nature of employment in India is__________
  6. _______of the economy is the number of people in the country, who work and also capable of working
  7. public sector means________

Answer:

  1. unorganised
  2. pubilc,private
  3. employment
  4. lifestyle of the people
  5. multi-dimensional
  6. labour force
  7. government undertaking

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

III. Match the following

  1. Public sector – a. Banking
  2. Private sector – b. Poultry
  3. Primary sector – c. Profit motive
  4. Tertiary sector – d. Service motive

Answer:

  1. – (d)
  2. – (c)
  3. – (b)
  4. – (a)

IV. Give Short answers

Question 1.
What is labour force of the ecdnomy?
Answer:

  1. Labour force of the economy is the number of people in the country who works and also capable of working.
  2. We take the age group 15-60 years for the computation of work force.
  3. Person less than 15 years are considered as children, and persons who have crossed 60 years of age are excluded as they are not physically fit & undertake productive occupation.

Question 2.
Why are children and old age (above 60 years) are not considered for computation of workforce?
Answer:

  1. Persons less than 15 years are considered as children.
  2. Persons above 60 years of age are excluded as they are not physically fit to take productive
    occupation
  3. If larger percentage of population is accounted by children and old age persons, then the progress of the country would be very slow as the working force is very small.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 3.
What are the three sectors of an economy?
Answer:
The three sectors of the Indian economy are

  1. Primary Sector – Agriculture, poultry.
  2. Secondary Sector – Manufacturing, constructional activities.
  3. Tertiary Sector – Transport, Insurance.

Question 4.
Agriculture, despite a sharp decline in Gross Domestic Product, continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu. Give reason.
Answer:

  1. Agriculture despite a sharp decline in Gross Domestic Product continues to be the largest employer in Tamil Nadu.
  2. This is because the Non – agriculture sectors have not generated enough employment to affect a shift of labour force.

V. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Explain: (a) primary sector; (b) secondary sector; (c) tertiary sector.
Answer:
(a) Primary Sector

  1. Primary, activities are directly dependent on environment as these refer to utilization of earth’s resources such as land, water, vegetation, building materials and minerals.
  2. It includes hunting and gathering, pastoral activities fishing, foresting, agriculture, mining and quarrying.
  3. People engaged in primary activities are called red – collar workers due to the outdoor nature of their work.

(b) Secondary Sector:

  1. Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products.
  2. These activities are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction industries.
  3. People engaged in secondary activities are called blue collar workers.

(c) Tertiary Sector:

  1. Tertiary activities include both production and exchange.
  2. The production involves the provision of services that are consumed.
  3. Exchange involves trade, transport and communication facilities that are used to over come distance.
  4. Tertiary jobs are called white collar jobs

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 2.
Explain the employment structure of India.
Answer:

  1. The nature of employment in India is multi-dimensional.
  2. Some get employment throughout the year, some others get employed for only a few months in a year.
  3. The economy is classified into three sectors. Primary or agricultural sector, secondary or industrial sector, tertiary or service sectors.
    • Primary Sector – Agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, dairy farming etc.
    • Secondary Sector – Manufacturing, small and large scale industries and constructional activities.
    • Tertiary Sector – Transport, Insurance, Banking, Trade, Communication, Government and Non government.
  4. In developing countries like India, large work force will be engaged in primary sector while a small proportion in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  5. Employment growth in India has however not been adequate in view of faster growth in recent years.
  6. Employment has always featured as an important element of development policy in India.
  7. Employment growth has increased at an average rate of 2% during the past four decades since 1972-1973.

Question 3.
Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors
Answer:
Organised Sector:

  1. It is incorporated with the appropriate authority or government with specific rules and regulations.
  2. The employers in the sectors are provided with job security and receive higher wages than those of the unorganised sectors.
  3. Employees of Central and State government, Banks, Railways, Insurance, Industry are called orgasnised sector.
  4. They have fixed working hours, good salary, paid holidays and provides medical allowance and Insurance also.

Unorganised Sector:

  1. It is characteristic the household manufacturing activity and small-scale industry without proper rules and regulations.
  2. Employment is not secure, when there is no work, people are asked to leave the job.
  3. This sector includes a large number of people who are employed on their own doing small jobs such as selling on the street, doing repair work and so on.
  4. The employment terms are not fixed and regular. They do not enjoy any special benefit or job security. These enterprises are not registered with the government.

Question 4.
Distinguish between the Public sector and the Private sector.
Answer:
Public Sector:

  1. Service motive.
  2. Government owns the assets.
  3. Wages are paid by Government.
  4. Preserves national wealth.
  5. Eg: NLC, SAIL, BSNL

Private Sector:

  1. Profit motive.
  2. Private individuals own the assets.
  3. Wages are paid by the owner of Private enterprises.
  4. Exploitation of natural resources like forest, mines for their personal benefit.
  5. Eg: TVS Motors, Ashok Leylnd, TATA steel.

VI. Projects and Activities

Question 1.
Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you. In what way can you classify them?
Answer:
Activity to be done by the students themselves

Question 2.
A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Chennai and found the following
Answer:

Place of work Nature of employment Percentage of working people
In offices and factories registered with the government. Organised 15
Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license. 20
People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers. 25
Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government.

Answer:

Place of work Nature of employment Percentage of working people
In offices and factories registered with the government. Organised 15
Own shops, office, clinics in marketplaces with formal license. Private 20
People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers. Unorganised 25
Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government. Unorganised

Question 3.
Classify the following list of occupations under primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Milk vendor, tailor, teacher, doctor, farmer, postman, engineer, potter, fisherman, artisans, policeman, banker, driver, carpenter.
Answer:

Primary Secondary Tertiary
Farmer Engineer Doctor, Policeman,
Fisherman Potter Postman
Carpenter Banker
Artist Teacher

VII. Hots

Question1.
tertiary sector is in top position in the world now justify
Answer:

  1. The tertiary sector consists of the ‘soft part’ of the economy, ie, activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity, performance, potential and sustainability.
  2. The basic characteristics of this sector is the production of services instead of end products.
  3. In other words, services, known as intangible goods including many production systems, such as hospitals, beauty saloons consulting companies, banks, financial institutions, schools, restaurants and others do not produce a tangible product.
  4. Instead, the output of such systems is a service.
  5. Hence the tertiary sector is also known as the service industry sector.
  6. India ranks 9th in the tertiary sector output as per IMF and CTA world fact Book, 2015
  7. This sector provides employment to around 23% of the total workforce in the country.
  8. Service sector is the support for the social, economic growth of a country.
  9. It is today the largest and fastest-growing sector globally contributing more to the output and employing more people than any other sector
  10. The real reason for the growth of the service sector is due to the increase in urbanization, privatisation and increasing demand for intermediate and final consumer services.
  11. In advanced economics, the growth in the primary and secondary sectors are directly dependent on the growth of services like banking insurance, trade, commerce, entertainment, social and personal etc.,
  12. The U.S. and other developed economics are non dominated by the services sector, accounting for more than two-thirds of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

VIII. Life Skill

Question 1.
Discuss the sectors of your village economy.
Answer:
Activity to be done by the students themselves

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Employment in India and Tamilnadu Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
In India the nature of employment in India is _______
(a) agriculture oriented
(b) industry oriented
(c) skill oriented
(d) multi-dimensional
Answer:
(d) multi-dimensional

Question 2.
The organised sector provides _________
(a) good salary
(b) medical allowance
(c) paid holidays
(d) all the three
Answer:
(d) all the three

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 3.
Government plays a major role in sector _________
(a) agricultural
(b) private
(c) Public
(d) unorganised
Answer:
(c) Public

Question 4.
Iruvelpattu is a village in _________
(a) Erode
(b) Chengelpet
(c) Villupuram
(d) Vellore
Answer:
(c) Villupuram

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. Those who are engaged in economic activities are called _________
  2. In a well-developed countries, the proportion of work force engaged in agriculture will be _________
  3.  In unorganized sector the employment terms are not _________
  4. In recent times there has been a growth in _________
  5. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed in the year _________

Answers:

  1. Employees
  2. Very small
  3. Fixed and Regular
  4. Part – time employment
  5. 2005

II. Match the following

  1. Unorganised Sector – (i) Job security
  2. Organised Sector – (ii) Iruvelpattu
  3. Recent years – (iii) No fixed terms
  4. Slater village – (iv) Increasing self employment

Answer:

  1. – iii
  2. – i
  3. – iv
  4. – ii

IV. Write short answers

Question 1.
What are the basic need in the present world?
Answer:

  1. The basic needs of every human being are food, clothes and shelter
  2. In the present world, one more thing also need to be added in this list, is employment
  3. To survive in the world, we all need employment to earn money.

Question 2.
Define the terms employer and employee.
Answer:

  1. Those who are engaged in economic activities, in whatever capacity, are called employees.
  2. People who employ these workers and pay rewards for their work in termed as employers.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Question 3.
In recent years what are the types of more flexible working patterns seen among the employees?
Answer:

  1. In recent years, there has been a change in employment patterns.
  2. This has helped the employer to develop more flexible working patterns among their employees.
  3. The trends are
    • increasing self employment
    • firms using fewer full time employees and tending to offer more short term contracts
  4. There has been a growth in part – time employment.
  5. This may be due to lifestyle of the people.

Question 4.
Mention the importance of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.
Answer:

  1. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee of 2005 is able to provide work in rural areas for 100 days of employment in a year.
  2. It aims to enhance livelihood security in rural areas.

V. Answer in a detail

Question 1.
Write a note on the case study of Employment in Iruvelpattu.
Answer:

  1. Iruvelpattu is a village in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu.
  2. This village has been studied for more than 100 years by many scholars.
  3. This village is also called Slater village as Gilbert Slater was the first scholar working in the University of Madras went with his students to study this village in 1916.
  4. Over the years, many scholars surveyed the occupations of villagers and collected many more details of each person in the village.
  5. Government brought social security awareness among the people of the village through their primary health care, provisio n of schools, maintenance of public distribution system.
  6. Though this village underwent many changes, is still depended on agricultural as the main occupation
  7. In the following chart we can notice that during 1981, out of 100 families, 24 were engaged in non-agriculture employment.
  8. In 2008, the percentage of families engaged in such employment increased to 41.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 2 Employment in India and Tamilnadu

Employment details of House holds in Iruvelpattu (in %)

Occupation % of Households
1981 2008
Cultivators 42 33
Agricultural labourers 34 26
Non-agricultural labourers 24 41
All households 100 100

VI. Hots

Question 1.
Suggest your views to incress agricultural productivity
Answer:

  1. To facilitate the farmers to produce new farm inputs and enable them to sell their product in markets, villages should be linked with mandies.
  2. Canals, Tube wells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of crops.
  3. Adequate credit facilities should be made available at reasonable cheap rates in rural areas.
  4. Marketing infra structure should be widened and strengthened to help farmers to sell their products at better prices.
  5. Efforts should be made towards completing the consolidation work with specific period of time
  6. Guidelines and advise could be given to the farmers regarding the adoption of new technology.
  7. Proper climate should be generated to encourage the farm people to start employment in subsidiary occupation. It will help to reduce the population pressure on land.
  8. The farmers should be made familiar with the advantage of chemical fertilizer through exhibitions and these inputs should be made easily available through co- operative societies and panchayats.
  9. To check up the sub division and fragmentation of holding, the movement of co-operative farming should be launched.
  10. In rural areas, more emphasis should be made to set up cottage and small scale industries.

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