Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
____________ is genetically closest to humans
(a) Gorilla
(b) Chimpanzee
(c) Orang-utan
(d) Great Apes
Answer:
(b) Chimpanzee

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 2.
The period called____________ marks the beginning of agriculture and animal domestication.
(a) Paleolithic
(b) Mesolithic
(c) Neolithic
(d) Megalithic
Answer:
(c) Neolithic

Question 3.
Direct ancestor of modern man was ____________
(a) Homo habilis
(b) Homo erectus
(c) Homo sapiens
(d) Neanderthal man
Answer:
(c) Homo sapiens

Question 4.
____________ refers to the area covering Egypt, Israel-Palestine and Iraq.
(a) Great Rift Valley
(b) Fertile Crescent
(c) Solo river
(d) Neander Valley
Answer:
(b) Fertile Crescent

Question 5.
Sir Robert Bruce Foote, a geologist from England first discovered the____________ tools at Pallavaram near Chennai.
(a) Stone Age
(b) Paleolithic
(c) Mesolithic
(d) Neolithic
Answer:
(b) Paleolithic

Question 6.
(i) The period before the introduction of writing is called pre-history.
(ii) The pre-historic people developed language, made beautiful paintings and artefacts.
(iii) The pre-historic societies are treated as literate.
(iv) The pre-historic period is called ancient.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 7
(i) The Neolithic people used polished stone axes called Celts
(ii) Evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Chennai district
(iii) The cultural period that succeeded the Neolithic is called the Bronze Age
(iv) The period that witnessed domestication of animals and cultivation of crops is called Mesolithic
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Question 8.
Assertion (A): Many of the Mesolithic sites are founds nearby rivers and tanks.
Reason (R): Irrigation management developed during Mesolithic period.
(a) A and R are correct and R explains A
(b) A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A
(c) A is correct but R is incorrect ‘
(d) A and R both are incorrect
Answer:
(d) A and R both are incorrect

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the ________ culture.
  2. The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called ___________ technology.
  3. __________ is known as the Middle Stone Age, as it is placed between the Paleolithic and Neolithic.

Answer:

  1. Lower Paleolithic
  2. Lithic
  3. Mesolithic period

III. Find out the correct statement:

Question 1.
(a) The concept ‘survival of the fittest’ contributed to the scientific understanding of human origins.
(b) The book “On the Origin of Species” was published by Herbert Spencer.
(c) Darwin’s theory of biological evolution connects with the process of natural selection.
(d) Geology is the study of lithic technology.
Answer:
(a) Correct.
(b) Wrong. The book on the Origin of Species was published by Charles Darwin.
(c) Correct.
(d) Wron. – Geology is the study of the Earth.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 2.
(a) Among the great Apes Orang-utan is genetically the closest to humans.
(b) The ancestors to humans were called Hominins and their origins have been traced to Africa.
(c) Flake is a small chip that has flaking on both sides.
(d) Acheulian is the main block of stone from which small chips are flaked by using a hammer stone.
Answer:
(a) Wrong. Among the great Apes Chimpanzee is genetically the closest to humans.
(b) Correct.
(c) Wrong. Flake is a small chip removed from a large stone block called the core.
(d) Wrong. Core is the main block of stone from which small chips are flaked by using a hammer stone.

IV. Match the following:

  1. Palaeo anthropology – a. Teris
  2. Hand axe tools – b. Venus
  3. Images on stone and bone – c. Acheulian
  4. Red sand dunes – d. Microliths
  5. Stone artefacts of small size – e. The study of the human ancestors

Answer:

  1. – e
  2. – c
  3. – b
  4. – a
  5. – d

V. Answer the following briefly: –

Question 1.
Discuss how the age of speculation made humans become conscious and knowledgeable.
Answer:

  1. Humans are the only species on earth concerned with understanding as well as explaining the world and the universe.
  2. In the course of evolution, humans became conscious and knowledgeable.
  3. They turned curious and began to think and ask questions about nature, organisms and the world around them.
  4. They worshipped Sun, Moon and various natural forces about which they developed their own understanding, some of which is not scientific.

Question 2.
Write a note on the impact of pastoralism on the prehistoric people in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. People practiced agriculture, domesticated cattle and sheep, and some of the groups were still hunting and gathering. ?
  2. Millets and rice were cultivated.
  3. Irrigation management developed.
  4. In the deltaic region, evidence of rice is seen in the megalithic sites like Adichanallur in – Thoothukudi district and Porunthal near Palani.

Question 3.
List out the features of Megalithic Burial types.
Answer:

  1. The Iron age is also known as megalithic, since people created burials with large stones for the dead people.
  2. Within these burials the skeletons or few bones of the dead persons were placed along with ‘ grave goods including iron objects, Camelian beads and bronze objects.
  3. Some of the burials do not have human bones and they have only the grave goods.
  4. They may be called memorial burials.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 4.
Examine the tool making technical skills of lower Paleolithic people.
Answer:

  1. The human ancestors of flaked large stone blocks and designed various tools including hand axes.
  2. They made various tools such as hand axes and cleavers to meet their subsistence needs.
  3. The hand axe tools are also known as Acheulian.
  4. Bifaces are tools that have flaking on both sides.
  5. This tool making tradition continued till 250,000 years to 60,000 years ago in India.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Question 1.
Hominid and Hominins

  1. Who are Hominids?
  2. Who was the earliest human ancestor to make tools in Africa?
  3. How are the modern humans known?
  4. Name any one species of this tribe

Answer:

  1. Hominid refers to all the species of the modem and extinct great apes, which also includes humans.
  2. Homo habilis was the earliest human ancestor to make tools in Africa.
  3. Modem humans are known as Homo Sapiens.
  4. Humans are the only living species of this tribe.

Question 2.
Earliest Lithic Assemblages of Human ancestors

  1. Where are Acheulian tools are reported to have been found in Karnataka and in Madhya Pradesh?
  2. What is Burin?
  3. What are Biface tools?
  4. Name a few stone tools used by the human ancestors.

Answer:

  1. Acheulian tools are reported to have been found in Isampur in Karnataka and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.
  2. Burin is a stone-made chisel with a sharp cutting edge.
  3. Bifaces are tools that have flaking on both sides, (bi = two, face = side).
  4. Core and flake were used. Core is the main block of stone from which small chips are flaked by using a hammer stone. Flake is a small chip removed from a large stone block called the core.

VII. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
The developments in the fields of agriculture, pottery and metal tools are considered a landmark in the fife of Megafithic period-Substantiate.
Answer:
(a) Agriculture:

  1. People practiced agriculture, domesticated cattle and sheep.
  2. Millets and rice were cultivated.
  3. Irrigation management developed, since many of the megalithic sites are found nearby rivers and tanks.
  4. In the deltaic region, irrigation as a technology had developed.
  5. Evidence of rice is seen in the megalithic sites like Adichanallur in Thoothukudi district and Porunthal near Palani.

(b) Pottery:

  1. Pottery is an important evidence found in the archaeological sites.
  2. The iron age and sangam age people used the black and red colours to make blackware and redware pottery.
  3. Potteries were used for cooking, storage and dining purposes.
  4. The black and redware pottery has a black inside and a red outside, with lustrous surfaces.

(c) Metal tools:

  1. Weapons such as swords and daggers, axes, chisels, lamps and tripod stands are also found.
  2. The iron tools were used for agriculture, hunting and gathering and in battles.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 2.
The history of humans is closely related to the history of the earth Elucidate.
Answer:

  1. The history of the humans is closely related to the history of the Earth.
  2. The earth contains geological, archaeological and biological records of historical times in its upper layers.
  3. They are important for reconstructing the history of the earth and various living organisms.
  4. The fossil bones of the human ancestors are embedded in the earth’s layers.
  5. Palaeoanthropologists and archaecologists excavate the soil and rock layers on the earth and extractevidence about human anscestors.
  6. These layers and the fossils are scientifically dated to study the various stages in human evolution and prehistory.
  7. Through the gathered evidence, they attempt to understand the evolution of human history and developments in a chronological order.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the best answer

Question 1.
We live In an age of ______ Technology.
(a) Transport
(b) Information
(c) Agricultural
(d) Scientific
Answer:
(b) Information

Question 2.
The history of humans cannot be delinked from the history of the ____________
(a) Planets
(b) Earth
(c) Solar system
(d) Water bodies
Answer:
(b) Earth

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 3.
The study of human past through the analysis and interpretation of material remains is called ____________
(a) Archaeology
(b) Paleoanthropology
(c) Geology
(d) Biology
Answer:
(a) Archaeology

Question 4.
The study of human ancestors and their evolution is called ____________
(a) Paleoanthropology
(b) Geology
(c) Microbiology
(d) Archaeology
Answer:
(a) Paleoanthropology

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 5.
The earth was formed approximately ____________ billion years ago
(a) 5.5
(b) 4.5
(c) 4.54
(d) 5.52
Answer:
(c) 4.54

Question 6.
Eons are long period of time covering ____________ of years
(a) thousands
(b) hundreds
(c) millions
(d) a few decades
Answer:
(c) millions

Question 7.
The primitive multi-cellular life first appeared in the ____________ era
(a) Palaeozoic
(b) Mesozoic
(c) Proterozoic
(d) cenozic
Answer:
(c) Proterozoic

Question 8.
Dinosaurs lived in the ____________ era.
(a) Cenozoic
(b) Proterozoic
(c) Palaeozoic
(d) Mesozoic
Answer:
(d) Mesozoic

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 9.
The beginning of history writing is traced to the time of ancient ____________
(a) Egyptians
(b) Greeks
(c) Romans
(d) Indians
Answer:
(b) Greeks

Question 10.
The Father of history is ____________
(a) Herodotus
(b) Hercules
(c) Aristotle
(d) Socrates
Answer:
(a) Herodotus

Question 11.
The museum of Ennigaldi Nanna was established in ______
(a) Sumeria
(b) Babylonia
(c) Mesopotamia
(d) Bulgaria
Answer:
(c) Mesopotamia

Question 12.
The oldest surviving museum CapHoline museum is located in ____________
(a) Italy
(b) Germany
(c) France
(d) Belgium
Answer:
(a) Italy

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 13.
World’s oldest university museum As is located at ____________
(a) London
(b) Ireland
(c) Nalanda
(d) Oxford
Answer:
(d) Oxford

Question 14.
The study of Fossils is known as ____________
(a) Immunology
(b) Palaeontology
(c) Microbiology
(d) Geology
Answer:
(b) Palaeontology

Question 15.
The hallmark of human civilization is the introduction of ____________
(a) Stone weapons
(b) Agriculture
(c) Faster economy
(d) writing system
Answer:
(d) writing system

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 16.
Lithic technology involves ____________
(a) electricity
(b) water
(c) land
(d) stone
Answer:
(d) stone

Question 17.
Cro – Magnons belonged to _______
(a) Europe
(b) Asia
(c) America
(d) Africa
Answer:
(a) Europe

Question 18.
Cro – Magnons belonged to ____________
(a) Lower Paleolithic period
(b) Middle Paleolithic period
(c) Upper Paleolithic period
(d) Mesolithic period
Answer:
(c) Upper Paleolithic period

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 19.
The stone tools of Lower Paleolithic culture of Tamilnadu are found at ____________
(a) Ayambakkam
(b) Kottivakkam
(c) Athirampakkam
(d) Medavakkam
Answer:
(c) Athirampakkam

Question 20.
Cognition is related to the development of human  ____________
(a) Wealth
(b) health
(c) life style
(d) thought
Answer:
(d) thought

Question 21.
Lunates are tools in the shape of a ____________
(a) circle
(b) cube
(c) crescent
(d) cuboid
Answer:
(c) crescent

Question 22.
The cultural period that succeeded the Neolithic is called ____________ period.
(a) Lower Paleolithic
(b) Mesolithic
(c) Middle Paleolithic
(d) Megalithic
Answer:
(d) Megalithic

Question 23.
Assertion (A): The Ashokan inscriptions datable to third century BCE refer to the Cheras, Choias, Pandyas and Satyaputras outside his empire in Tamilagam.
Reason (R): Ancient kings of Tamilagam commenced their political rule in the Iron Age.
(a) A and R are correct and R explains A
(b) A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A
(c) A is correct but R is incorrect
(d) A and R both are incorrect
Answer:
(a) A and R are correct and R explains A

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. Prehistoric people were the pioneers of _______Knowledge
  2. Cognition is related to the development of human ____________
  3. The long span of time in earthls history is divided into eras, periods and epochs by the _______
  4. Australopithecines appeared in the______ era
  5. Australopithecines were the ______ from which modren humans evolved
  6. The father of History is ________
  7. Animal bones are preserved due to ______
  8. The period before the introduction of writing is called ______
  9. The _______ is genetically the closest to human.
  10. The earliest tools made by human ancestors are found in _______
  11. Subsistence necessities of prehistoric humans were mainly ______ and ____
  12. The human ancestors possibly used language _____
  13. Levalloisian tools are named after the _____ town
  14. Some of the rock paintings of India are dated to ______ palaeolithic culture
  15. Mesolithic period is known as ______ age

Answer:

  1. Creative
  2. thougth
  3. Geologists
  4. cenozoic
  5. apes
  6. herodotus
  7. mineralisation
  8. pre-history
  9. chimpanzee
  10. food, water
  11. sing
  12. levallois
  13. upper
  14. middle stone

III. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.

  1. Early evidence of the Neolithic period is found in the fertile crescent region of India.
  2. Neolithic age is called the ‘new age’ because of the new grinding and polishing techniques used for the tools.
  3. People preferred to live on river banks as it was a cool atmosphere.
  4. Wheat and barley were cultivated at Mehrgarh.

Answer:

  1. Wrong. Early evidence of the Neolithic period is found in the Crescent region of Egypt
  2. Correct.
  3. Wrong. People prefer to live on river banks as it was better for adaptation
  4. Correct.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 2.

  1. In mesolithic period there was no knowledge of metal
  2. the stone tools are found near chennai at athirampakkam
  3. sir rober bruce foote belonged to spain
  4. basalt rocks aer sedimentaey rocks

Answer:

  1. correct.
  2. correct.
  3. wrong . (sir robert burce foote belonged to england)
  4. wrong. (basalt rocks are igneous rocks)

IV. Match the Following

Question 1.
(a) Early Archaen Era – (i) 251 to 66 million years ago
(b) Palaeozic – (ii) 23 to 2.6 million years ago
(c) Mesozoic – (iii) 542 to 251 million years ago
(d) Cenozic Era- (iv) 5.33 to 2.6 million years ago
(e) Neogene Period – (v) commencing 66 million years
_________________- (vi) 3.5 billion years ago
Answer:
(a) – vi
(b) – iii
(c) – i
(d) – v
(e) – iii

Question 2.
(a) Ennigaldi – Nanna Museum – (i) 1471 C.E
(b) Capitolline Museum – (ii) 1820-1903 C.E
(c) Ashmolean Museum – (iii) 1809-1882 C.E
(d) herbert Spencer – (iv) 530B.C.E
(e) Charles Darwin – (v) 1501 C.E
_________________ – (vi) 1677 C.E
Answer:
(a) – iv
(b) – i
(c) – vi
(d) – ii
(e) – iii

Question 3.
(a) Species of modem period – (i) Chimpanzee
(b) Great apes – (ii) Africa
(c) Human Ancestors – (iii) Homo erectus
(d) Great Rift Valley – (iv) Hominins
(e) Two million years ago – (v) Homo Sapiens
Answer:
(a) – v
(b) – i
(c) – iv
(d) – ii
(e) – iii

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 4.
(a) Basalt – (i) – Southern part of Tamil Nadu
(b) Lemuria – (ii) – Palk straits
(c) Sivarakottai – (iii) – SriLanka
(d) Teris – (iv) – Igneous rocks
(e) Water crafts – (v) – Continent
_______________- (vi)- Red sand dunes
Answer:
(a) – iv
(b) – v
(c) – i
(d) – vi
(e) – ii

V. Answer the following briefly

Question 1.
What is information technology?
Answer:

  1. We live in the age of information technology.
  2. With touch screen mobiles, the world is literally in our fingertips.
  3. The foundation for our modem life was facilitated by our ancestor’s process of cognition in the prehistoric age.

Question 2.
Mention the importance of the upper layers of the earth.
Answer:

  1. The upper layers of the earth help to reconstruct the history of the earth and various living organisms.
  2. The fossil bones of the human ancestors are embedded in these layers.
  3. Palaeonthropologists and archaeologists excavate the soil and rock layers on the earth and extract the evidence of human ancestors.
  4. They attempt to understand the developments in human history more chronologically.

Question 3.
What is meant by Stratigraphy?
Answer:

  1. The study of origin, nature, relationships of rock and soil layers that formed due to natural and cultural activities is known as stratigraphy.
  2. It helped in the rise of scientific enquiries into the origin of humans.

Question 4.
What was proposed by C. J. Thomsen to understand early human history?
Answer:

  1. The idea of the Three Age System was proposed by C. J. Thomsen.
  2. He classified the artefacts in the Danish National Museum into Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age.
  3. Stone Age means the period when mainly stone was used for making implements.
  4. Bronze Age means the period when bronze metallurgy developed.
  5. Iron Age means the period when iron was smelted to produce implements.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 5.
Explain the term Pre-history.
Answer:

  1. The period before the introduction of writing is called pre-history.
  2. The pre-historic period covers more than 99 percent of human history.
  3. Pre-historic societies are treated as pre-literate.
  4. But they were not primitive.
  5. They developed language, made beautiful paintings and artifacts and were highly skillful.

Question 6.
Where is Great Rift Valley located?
Answer:

  1. The Great Rift Valley is a valley like formation.
  2. It runs for about 6400 km from Northern part of Syria to Central Mozabique in East Africa.
  3. It is a feature visible from the space.
  4. It has many prehistoric sites in Eastern Africa.

Question 7.
Where do we find the earliest lithic tools of human ancestors?
Answer:

  1. The earliest tools made by human ancestors are found in Lomekwi in Kenya.
  2. They are dated to 3.3 million years.
  3. Oldowan tools occur in the oldpvai Gorge in Africa.
  4. The human ancestors used hammer stones and produced sharp flakes.
  5. The tools were used for cutting, slicing and processing food.

Question 8.
What are Levalloisian tools?
Answer:

  1. The lithic tool making tradition of the Levalloisian belonged to the Middle Paleolithic Culture.
  2. Levalloisian tools are the implements made after preparing the core.
  3. It was named after the town of Levallois in France.

Question 9.
Mention the importance of the Upper Paleolithic period.
Answer:

  1. The cultural phase that succeeded the Middle Paleolithic is called Upper Paleolithic.
  2. This period marks innovation in tool technology.
  3. Long blades and burians were produced.
  4. They used different varieties of silicarich raw materials.
  5. Numerous paintings and art objects were made.
  6. The diversity of artefacts suggests the improvement in cognitive skills and the development of languages.

Question 10.
Neolithic age is called New age. Why?
Answer:

  1. Neolithic Age is called New Age because of the grinding and polishing techniques used for the tools.
  2. It also used the flaked stone tools.
  3. The introduction of domestication of animals and cultivation of plants led to the production and supply of large quantities of grains and animal food.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 11.
What is meant by Cosmic-ray exposure dating?
Answer:

  1. Cosmic ray exposure dating is a method in which exposure to cosmogenic rays is done for dating the samples
  2. The cosmic ray exposure dating of the artefacts in the Lower Paleolithic culture suggests that people lived near the Chennai region at several sites, about 1.5 million years ago.

Question 12.
What are Wattle and Daub Walls? Where do you find them?
Answer:

  1. Wattle and daub walls are normally screens made of wood covered with clay.
  2. People of the Neolithic culture lived in small villages with houses made of thatched roof and walls plastered with clay.
  3. Evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Vellore district and a few sites in the Dharmapuri region.

Question 13.
What does the term burnishing mean?
Answer:

  1. Neolithic people perhaps made the first pottery.
  2. They made pottery, using a slow wheel called turn table or pottery made out of hands.
  3. Before firing, the pottery was polished with pebbles.
  4. This process is known as burnishing.

Question 14.
When was the foundation for Sangam age laid?
Answer:

  1. The Neolithic period was succeeded by Iron age.
  2. Iron was used technically.
  3. It preceded the Sangam Age.
  4. The iron age was a formative period and the foundation for the Sangam Age was laid.
  5. During the iron age, many parts of Tamil Nadu were occupied by people.
  6. Exchange relations developed among these people.

Question 15.
Mention the sites in Tamil Nadu where Iron age evidence is found.
Answer:

  1. The iron age evidence is found at many sites including Adichanallur in Thirunelveli district and Sanur near Madhuranthakam, Sithannavasal near Pudukkottai.
  2. All the districts of Tamil Nadu have the megalithic burial site.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 16.
What are memorial burials?
Answer:

  1. In the iron age people made burials with large stones for the dead people.
  2. Within these burials, the skeletons or a few bones of the dead persons were placed along with grave goods including iron objects, camelian beads and bronze objects.
  3. Some of these burials do not have human bones and they have only grave goods.
  4. They could be called memorial burials.

Question 17.
What is Portholes?
Answer:

  1. Partholes are holes found in the cists and dolmens on one side.
  2. They may have acted as the entrance to the burials.
  3. There is a view that they were meant for the movement of the soul.
  4. It is one of the burial types found in the megalithic period.

Question 18.
When did writing system emerge?
Answer:

  1. Writing system began to emerge in Sumeria in the later part of fourth millennium BCE.
  2. The Egyptian system of writing, hieroglyphic, developed in early third millennium BCE.
  3. The Harappans also had a system of writing around the same time, but not yet deciphered.
  4. The Chinese civilization too developed a writing system from a very early period.

Question 19.
What are Pictograms and Ideograms?
Answer:

  1. Pictograms were the earliest signs to denote words: a picture of a bird indicated a bird.
  2. Still we use them in rest rooms of men and women.
  3. Ideograms indicated the concept behind the picture.
  4. For example the image of sun would suggest day.

Question 20.
Explain the logo graphic system?
Answer:

  1. In logo graphic system, a character is referred to a word.
  2. If a character represented a syllable in a word, it is syllabic writing system.
  3. The system in which the basic unit of sound is represented, is called alphabetic.
  4. It was developed later in history.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 21.
Enumerate the distinctive characteristics of Neanderthals.
Answer:

  1. Neanderthals were shorter in height, smaller in size.
  2. They had thicker bones, short limbs and barrel chest.
  3. Their jaw lacked the projecting bony chin.
  4. They made stone tools, used fire and were hunters.
  5. They buried the dead people systematically.
  6. They did not have needles, sewn clothes and warm houses essential for survival in colder climates.

Question 22.
Domestication of animals is a milestone in Human history. Explain.
Answer:

  1. Animal domestication developed as part of symbiotic life.
  2. Dogs may have been domesticated first.
  3. Friendly animals were gradually domesticated.
  4. Sheep and goat were domesticated around 10,000 BCE is Southwest Asia.
  5. Mehrgarh in Pakistan has evidence of sheep, goat and cattle domestication in the Neolithic period.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Scientific Foundations of Geology, Biology and Archaeology.

  1. When did the real scientific enquiries becomes stronger?
  2. What did the scholars believe through their enquiry and observation?
  3. What is Stratigraphy?
  4. Mention the name of the oldest university museum in the world?

Answer:

  1. The real scientific enquiries became stronger only around the 15th and 16th centuries CE, with the Renaissance movement in Europe playing an influential role in-rational thinking.
  2. Through their enquiry and observation, scholars believed that the evidence for the origin of the earth and the organisms lay in the upper layers of the earth.
  3. The study of origin, nature and relationships of rock and soil layers that were formed due to natural and cultural activities.
  4. Ashmolean museum at Oxford University is the oldest university museum in the world.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 2.
Three Age system.

  1. By whom was the three age system proposed? State its importance.
  2. How did he classify the artefacts in the Danish National Museum, Copenhagen?
  3. What is meant by Bronze Age?
  4. Mention the contribution of the scholars towards the knowledge on prehistory, since the 19th century.

Answer:

  1. The idea of the Three Age system was proposed by C. J. Thomsen. It became the basis for understanding early human history.
  2. He classified the artefacts in the Danish National Museum Copenhagen, into Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age.
  3. The period when bronze metallurgy (extraction of metal ores) developed is known as Bronze Age.
  4. Since the 19th century, scholars have used advanced scientific techniques and undertook systematic studies to contribute to the current state of knowledge on prehistory.

Question 3.
Middle Paleolithic Culture.

  1. Name the species which existed during the Middle Paleolithic period.
  2. What are Levalloisian Tools?
  3. Name the people of this period.

Answer:

  1. The Homo Erectus species existed during the period.
  2. Levalloisian tools are the implements made after preparing the core. It was named after the town of Levallois in France.
  3. The people of this period were called Neanderthals.

Question 4.
Upper Paleolithic Culture.

  1. What is meant by Burin?
  2. How was ths period marked?
  3. Name the people who lived in Europe during this period.
  4. What was used for making tools and art works?

Answer:

  1. Burin is a stone made Chisel with a sharp cutting edge.
  2. This period was marked by innovation in tool technology.
  3. In Europe, humans known as Cro-Magnons lived in this period.
  4. Homs and ivory were used for making tools and art works.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 5.
Neolithic Culture.

  1. Where is the Early evidence of the Neolithic period found?
  2. Why is the Neolithic Age called ‘New Age’?
  3. What was the main factor for the development of the early civilization?
  4. Why is this period called Neolithic Revolution?

Answer:

  1. Early evidence of the Neolithic period is found in the fertile crescent region of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Indus region, the Gangetic Valley and in China.
  2. Neolithic Age is called the ‘New Age’ because of the new grinding and polishing techniques used for the tools.
  3. The surplus food production was the main factor for the development of the early civilizations.
  4. Permanent residences were built and large villages emerged as a result. Hence the development of this period is called Neolithic Revolution.

Question 6.
Lemuria and the Tamils.

  1. How do the researches relate Lemuria and Tamils?
  2. What do the available literary references point?
  3. Why are underwater surveys necessary in this area?
  4. What does Archaeological research reveal?

Answer:

  1. Some researches relate the origin of the Tamils to the submerged continent of Lemuria. In the wake of advancement in plate tectonics theory, differing views are put forth by scholars.
  2. The available literary references point to the submergence of areas around Kanyakumari. Some parts of Srilanka and Tamil Nadu were connected by land about 5000 years BCE.
  3. It is possible that some land might have submerged near Kanyakumari and around the coast of India, because of the rising sea levels. So underwater surveys are necessary in this areas.
  4. Archaeological research reveals that at least a section of people may have been living continuously in South India including Tamil Nadu from the Mesolithic and Neolithic times.

Question 7.
Payyampalli

  1. Where is PayyampalH located?
  2. What is the importance of this place?
  3. By whom was this excavated?
  4. What else has been found in this site?

Answer:

  1. PayyampalH is a village in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu.
  2. The earliest evidence for the domestication of animals and cultivation of plants is found at this site.
  3. It was excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India.
  4. Evidence for pottery making and cultivation of horsegram and greengram has been found in this village.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
What was contributed by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin towards biological evolution and understanding of human origins?
Answer:

  1. Herbert Spencer’s theory on biological evolution and Charles Darwin’s concepts of Natural % selection and Survival of the fittest contributed to the scientific understanding of human origin.
  2. According to Herbert Spencer, in biological evolution only those creations survive in the struggle for existence who are able to make effective adjustment with changing – circumstances. y .
  3. Charles Darwin published books on ‘The origin of Species’ in 1859 and, “The Descent of Man” in 1871.
  4. Natural selection means the processes by which organisms that are better adapted to their ‘ environment would survive and produce more offsprings.
  5. Survival of the fittest means survival of the form that will leave the most copies of itself in successive generations.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 2.
The Lower Paleolithic culture conveys the cognitive skill of the human ancestors. How?
Answer:

  1. The lower palaeolithic culture is marked by the human ancestors of Homo habilis and Homo erectus.
  2. The human ancestors flaked the large stones and designed tools including hand axes.
  3. These tools found in Africa, Asia and Europe are dated to about 1.8 million years ago.
  4. They made various tools such as hand axes and cleavers to meet their subsistence needs.
  5. These tools are also known as bifaces.
  6. Bifaces are tools which have flaking on both sides.
  7. The hand axe tools are also known as Achulian.
  8. Achulian were the first hand axes recognised at a place called St. Acheul in France. Hence they are called Acheulian tools.
  9. These tools show physical symmetry and the cognitive skills of the lower palaeolithic

Question 3.
The Upper palaeolithic period marks innovation in tool technology. Describe.
Answer:

  1. The cultural phase that succeeded the middle palaeolithic is called upper palaeolithic.
  2. This period marks innovation in tool technology.
  3. Long blades and burins were produced.
  4. They used different varieties in silica rich raw materials.
  5. Numerous paintings and art objects were made.
  6. The diversity of artefacts suggests the improvement in cognitive skills and the development of languages.
  7. Microliths appeared in this phase.
  8. Homs and Ivory were used for making tools and artworks.
  9. Bone needles, fish hooks, harpoons and lances were used.
  10. Pendants and richly carved tools were used.
  11. Images on stone and bone called Venus statues were produced in Europe and in some parts of Asia.

Question 4.
Mention the contribution of Sir Robert Bruce Foote towards Paleolithic culture of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. In 1863, Robert Bruce Foote, a geologist from England, first discovered the Paleolithic tools at Pallavaram near Chennai.
  2. They are the earliest finds of such tools in India.
  3. Hence, the hand axe assemblages were considered the Madras stone tool industry.
  4. The tools that he discovered are in the chennai museum.
  5. The Paleolithic people hunted wild animals and gathered the naturally available fruits, roots, nuts and leaves.
  6. They did not have knowledge of iron and pottery making, which developed much later in history.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 1 Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Question 5.
Can you reason out why were different burial types followed in Megalithic period?
Answer:

  1. There could be several factors influencing the megalithic burials.
  2. For example, social status or the importance of the individuals buried or simply the choice of the relatives of the dead.
  3. Raw material availability is another reason.
  4. In the deltaic areas where stones are not available, people used simple urns which were made by potters using clay.
  5. The menhirs may have been erected for the heroes in Iron Age.
  6. The tradition of hero stones might have begun in the Iron Age or even before.
  7. Since the herostones of Iron age do not have inscriptions, we cannot identify if they were
    really herostones.

Question 6.
What type of society and polity did Iron age have?
Answer:

  1. The Iron age society had farming communities, pastoralists and hunter gatherers.
  2. Craft specialists, potters and blacksmith had emerged.
  3. The society had several tribes.
  4. The size of the burials and the variations found in the burial goods suggests numerons social groups.
  5. Some of them seem to have had organised chiefdoms.
  6. Cattle lifting leading to wars and enroachment and expansion of territories had also started taking place in this period.
  7. The Ashokan inscriptions datable to third century B.C.E. refers to the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras outside his empire in Tamizhagam.
  8.  If the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras had been powerful political powers in the Mauryan period, they must have commenced their rule in the Iron age.

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