Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Industrial Revolution Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Who established the first steam boat service?
(a) Arkwright
(b) Samuel Crompton
(c) Robert Fulton
(d) James Watt
Answer:
(c) Robert Fulton

Question 2.
Why was Manchester considered ideal for
(a) availability of land
(b) Rich human resources
(c) ubetter living condition
(d) Cool climate
Answer:
(d) Cool climate

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 3.
Who invented the sewing machine?
(a) Elias Howe
(b) Eli – Whitiney
(c) Samuel Crompton
(d) Humphrey
Answer:
(a) Elias Howe

Question 4.
Which family introduced steam engine in France?
(a) de Wendel
(b) de Hindal
(c) de Arman
(d) de Renault
Answer:
(a) de Wendel

Question 5.
Who called Slater, the father of American Industrial Revolution?
(a) F.D. Roosevelt
(b) Andrew Jackson
(c) Winston Churchill
(d) Woodrow Wilson
Answer:
(b) Andrew Jackson

Question 6.
Which of the following is observed to commemorate the Hay Market Massacre?
(a) Independence Day
(b) Farmers Day
(c) Labour Day
(d) Martyrs Day
Answer:
(c) Labour Day

Question 7.
Where was Zollverein Customs Union formed?
(a) England
(b) Germany
(c) France
(d) America
Answer:
(b) Germany

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 8.
Who produced the first batch of automobiles in France?
(a) Louis Renault
(b) Armand Peugeot
(c) Thomas Alva Edison
(d) McAdam
Answer:
(b) Armand Peugeot

Question 9.
What was the invention that removed seeds from cotton?
(a) Rolling Mill
(b) Cotton Gin
(c) Spinning Mule
(d) Spinning Jenny
Answer:
(b) Cotton Gin

Question 10.
Which of the following was used as fuel in olden days to smelt iron?
(a) Coke
(b) Charcoal
(c) Firewood
(d) Paper
Answer:
(b) Charcoal

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. ____________ called for voting rights to men in England.
  2. ____________ changed the way roads were built around the world.
  3. ____________ discovered a faster and cheaper method of production of steel.
  4. ____________ advocated scientific socialism.
  5. The first railroad line started in Germany was in the year ____________

Answer:

  1. The Chartists
  2. John Loudon McAdam
  3. Henry Bessemer
  4. Karl Marx
  5. December, 1835

III. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) British mine-owners were faced with the problem of water seeping into their mines
(ii) Employing human labour was cheap for this work
(iii) Newton invented a steam engine to pump w ater out of mines
(iv) Water had to be removed to get coal in mines
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iii) is correct
Answer:
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 2.
(i) Trade Unions were formed by labourers to get their rights
(ii) Germany’s political setup was the most significant challenge for the industrial resolution
(iii) To protect capitalists Karl Marx advocated socialism
(iv) There were no natural resources in Germany
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct
(d) (ii) is correct
Answer:
(d) (ii) is correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): Workers had rights to get holidays.
Reason (R): There were laws to protect the workers.
(a) A is correct R is wrong
(b) Both A & R are wrong
(c) Both A and R are correct
(d) A is correct R is not correct explanation of A
Answer:
(b) Both A & R are wrong

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Slater was called the Father of the American Industrial Revolution.
Reason (R): His spinning textile mill w as duplicated and his techniques became popular.
(a) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) A is wrong and R is the correct explanation of A
(c) Both A and R are wrong
(d) Both A and R are correct
Answer:
(a) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A]

IV. Match the following:

  1. Benz – (i) U.S.A
  2. Safety Lamp – (ii) Louis Renault
  3. Quadricycle – (iii) Humphrey Davy
  4. Great Railroad – (iv) Lancashire strike
  5. Coalfield – (v) Germany

Answer:

  1. – (v)
  2. – (iii)
  3. – (ii)
  4. – (i)
  5. – (iv)

V. Answer the following questions briefly:

Question 1.
What was the condition of labourers’ houses during Industrial Revolution?
Answer:

  1. The housing was tiny, dirty, and sickly for the labouring class.
  2. Workers had no time to clean or change their own atmosphere even if they wished to.
  3. It led to the outbreak of typhoid, cholera, and smallpox.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 2.
Account for urbanisation in England
Answer:

  1. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, England became the workshop of the world,
  2. People started moving to industrial towns giving up agriculture.
  3. Population growth, migration and urbanisation were the major social changes.
  4. Small towns became large cities. The city of London grew from a population of two million in 1840 to five million in forty years.

Question 3.
Attempt a note on Haymarket Massacre,
Answer:

  1. A labour protest took place on 4 May 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
  2. What began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day resulted in the killing of several workers by the police.
  3. To commemorate the Haymarket Affair, 1 May 1887 is observed as the Labour Day or May Day or International Worker’s Day.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 4.
What do you know of Louis Renault?
Answer:

  1. In 1898, Louis Renault built the quadricycle.
  2. From then onwards he began to produce in large quantities under his company, the Societe Renault Freres (Company Renault Brothers).

Question 5.
Highlight any two important results of Industrial Revolution.
Answer:

  1. Industrial Revolution increased the applications of Science to industry.
  2. The use of new technology came into practice.
  3. Developed transportation and communication.
  4. Introduced the use of new basic materials: Iron and Steel.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Labour Movement
(a) When was the Reform Bill introduced?
(b) To whom did it grant voting right.
(c) Why it was known as Chartism?
(d) What were the demands of the Chartists?
Answer:
(a) 1832
(b) The Chartists called for voting rights to every man over twenty-one years ago.
(c) The charter was presented to the House of Commons (the English lower house in the Parliament, England) Known as Chartism.
(d) The chartists demanded voting rights to every man over twenty one years of age, secret ballot, annual parliamentary elections and equal representation.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 2.
Transportation and Communication
(a) Which was the first railway line opened in England?
(b) How were the produced goods transported to markets?
(c) How was the steamboat invented in the US called?
(d) Who sailed from New York to Albany?
Answer:
(a) The first railway line in England was opened between Stockton and Darlington in 1825.
(b) New networks of canals, roads and railroads were built. Macadamised roads and George Stephenson’s steam locomotive helped to improve road and railway transport system in the country.
(c) The steam boat invented in the US in 1807 was called Clermont.
(d) Robert Fulton who invented the steam boat travelled from New York to Albany covering 150 miles.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Enumerate the causes for the Second Industrialization in the USA.
Answer:

  1. A shift from manual labour-based to more technical and machine-based manufacturing industry marked the Industrial Revolution in the United States.
  2. Samuel Slater, a citizen of England, was a well experienced person to operate a mill.
  3. On learning that Americans were interested in the new techniques, Slater departed for New York in 1789 illegally.
  4. He offered his services to Moses Brown, a leading Rhode Island industrialist.
  5. The mill became operational in 1793, being the first water-powered roller spinning textile mill in America.
  6. By 1800, Slater’s mill had been duplicated by many other entrepreneurs.
  7. Andrew Jackson, the U.S. President hailed Slater as “Father of the American Industrial Revolution.”
  8. The United States in the nineteenth century began to show technological innovation.
  9. After the Civil War, industrialisation went on at a frantic pace.
  10. The Industrial Revolution quickened the process of the transition of the United States from a rural to an urban society.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 2.
What were the effects of Industrial Revolution of England on India?
Answer:

  1. The invention of flying shuttle by John Kay and the inventions of Hargreaves, Arkwright and Crompton within thirty years accelerated the process of spinning and weaving.
  2. When the British established their foothold in Bengal as a territorial power, exploited Bengal and the Carnatic economically.
  3. The weavers of Bengal suffered at the hands of the Company’s officials and their agents.
  4. These officials and agents first insisted on payment of a transit duty for the commodities they carried from one place to another.
  5. Later for cultivation of commercial crops required for British industries in England.
  6. The English deliberately destroyed Indian industiy by dumping the Indian markets with their machine-made cheap cotton piece goods.
  7. India lost her old industrial position and became an exporter of raw material.
  8. The export of raw cotton from India had steadily dwindled owing to the competition from
    USA.
  9. Weavers were thrown out of employment due to the British factory made cheap cotton fabrics in Indian markets.
  10. The Collector of Madurai reported that families of about 5,000 weavers did not have the means to take more than one meal of rice a day. The Collector of Tirunelveli observed that the weaving population had outrun its means of subsistence.
  11. To escape starvation deaths, peasants and artisans had to move out of the country opting to working on plantations in British Empire colonies.

Activity

Question1.
Organize a debate on the positive and negative aspects of Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
(a) The Positive effects of the Industrial Revolution

  1. It generated economic growth across much of the nation.
  2. The Revolution fundamentally transformed the nature of the country’s economy from an agrarian centric one to an industrialised one.
  3. With that transformation came hundreds of thousands of new jobs.
  4. Urbanisation took place, Living style got influenced by new technology.

(b) The Negative effects of the Industrial Revolution

  1. The dehumanising conditions became the characteristic of many factories.
  2. The abuse of children for cheap labour affected the children very badly.
  3. The physical dangers associated with machinery were too many.
  4. Environmental devastation caused major problem air pollution affected the people with respiratory problems.
  5. However the economic growth came with a serious price in terms of environmental degradation.

Assignment

Question 2.
Write an assignment on the modern plastic road being made by used-plastics.
Answer:

  1. Plastic roads are made entirely of plastic or of composites of plastic with other materials.
  2. Plastic roads are different from standard roads in the respect that standard roads are made from asphalt concrete.
  3. Currently there are no records of regular roads made purely by plastic. But Plastic composite roads show better wear resistance.
  4. The implementation of plastics in roads also opens a new option for recycling post consumer plastics.
  5. Australia, Indonesia, India, United States and many other countries have used this technology.
  6. Since plastic roads are a relatively new idea, construction processes vary. In Jamshedpur, roads are created from a mix of plastic and bitumen.
  7. These roads are made from recycled plastics, and the first step in constructing them is to collect and manage the plastic material.
  8. The plastics involved in building these roads consists mainly of common post-consumer products such as product packaging. Some of the most common plastics used in packaging are polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and high and low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE).
  9. These materials are first sorted from plastic waste. After sorting, the material is cleaned, dried, and shredded.
  10. The shredded plastic is mixed and melted at around 170°C. Hot bitumen is then added and mixed with the melted plastic.
  11. After mixing, the mixture is laid as one would with regular asphalt concrete.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Industrial Revolution Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Flying shuttle helped
(a) To remove seed from cotton
(b) To spin hundreds of threads simultaneously
(c) To increase the speed of weaving
(d) To use water power in the place of man power
Answer:
(c) To increase the speed of weaving

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 2.
Henry Bessemer discovered a faster and cheaper method of producing steel in the year _____
(a) 1802
(b) 1767
(c) 1856
(d) 1900
Answer:
(c) 1856

Question 3.
John Loudon Me Adam became famous for _____
(a) Railways
(b) Roads
(c) Machines
(d) Steam Boat
Answer:
(b) Roads

Question 4.
In the industrial factories and mines ______
(a) No legislation to monitor the service conditions
(b) Workers had few rights
(c) Working conditions were harsh
(d) All of above three statements
Answer:
(d) All of above three statements

Question 5.
Louis Renault who built the quadricycie belonged to _____
(a) France
(b) Germany
(c) Great Britain
(d) Spain
Answer:
(a) France

Question 6.
Harz mountains were well known for
(a) Gold
(b) Silver
(c) Copper
(d) Iron
Answer:
(d) Iron

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 7.
Zollverein Customs Union allowed free trade among
(a) Countries
(b) Colonies
(c) provinces
(d) people
Answer:
(c) provinces

Question 8.
Siemens a well known company in _____
(a) France
(b) Germany
(c) U.S.A
(d) England
Answer:
(b) Germany

Question 9.
Samuel Slater was a citizen of _____
(a) U.S.A
(b) England
(c) Sweden
(d) Germany
Answer:
(b) England

Question 10.
In India, Labour day was first celebrated in _____
(a) Delhi
(b) Bombay
(c) Chennai
(d) Kolkata
Answer:
(c) Chennai

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Due to Industrial Revolution goods began to be produced by _______
  2. Division of Labour came into practice due to _______
  3. A Scottish engineer _______ converted a stationary steam engine to a rotary engine.
  4. The safety lamp of Sir Humphrey Davy was invented in ______
  5. The railways date back to sixth century B.C. in _____ Greece
  6. The Industrial Revolution made the life for ______ class very miserable
  7. The textile capital of the world was _______
  8. In Prussia ______ became a centre of the railroad network.
  9. Moses Brown was a Leading _____ industrial.
  10. Hay market square is located in _____

Answer:

  1. Machines
  2. Factory system
  3. James Watt
  4. 1815
  5. Corinth
  6. Labouring
  7. Manchester
  8. Berlin
  9. Rhoda Island
  10. Chicago

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

III. Match the following

(a) Spinning mule – (i) Water Frame
(b) Richard Arkwright – (ii) Steam Locomotive
(c) Cheshire – (iii) Clermont
(d) George Stephenson – (iv) Samuel Crompton
(e) Robert Fulton – (v) Textile Factory
Answer:
(a) – (iv)
(b) – (i)
(c) – (v)
(d) – (ii)
(e) – (iii)

IV. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) Industrial Revolution was transferred the agrarian society into factory system with machine production.
(ii) The banking system in England was very weak.
(iii) Employing human labour cost very low amount of money.
(iv) Eli Whitney invented spinning mule.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (i) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 2.
(i) The cheapest method of producing iron was using coke produced from coal.
(ii) Textile manufacture was at the heart of the Industrial Revolution.
(iii) Before the Industrial Revolution two types of mines existed: drift mines and bell pits.
(iv) By 1830, the distance between Manchester and Liverpool could be covered in four hours,
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (i) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): The weavers of Bengal suffered at the hands of the Company’s officials and their agents.
Reason (R): The British established their foothold in Bengal and looked its wealth,
(a) A is correct and R is wrong.
(b) Both A and R are wrong.
(c) Both A and R are correct.
(d) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
Answer:
(d) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Germany surpassed Great Britain and proved a competitor to the United States in Industrial Revolution.
Reason (R): Daimler and Benz became the most popular brands of automobiles in Germany and the world.
(a) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) A is wrong and R is the correct explanation of A
(c) Both A and R wrong.
(d) Both A and R are correct
Answer:
(a) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A

V. Answer all the questions given under each caption

Question 1.
Iron and Steel
(a) How was iron ore smelted in olden days?
Answer:
In olden days iron ore was smelted in brick furnaces. Charcoal was used as fuel.

(b) What was the quality of the iron?
Answer:
The iron produced was not sturdy and strong. It had to be smelted again.

(c) How was the cast iron blowing cylinder later improved?
Answer:
The cast iron blowing cylinder wasTater improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures.

(d) How did the rolling mill increases fuel efficiency in iron production?
Answer:
The rolling mill machine, for rolling steel or any other metal into sheets, proved to be fifteen times faster than hammering wrought iron. Hot blast greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production.

Question 2.
Effects of Industrial Revolution in England
(a) What did the Industrial Revolution lead to?
Answer:
Industrial Revolution led to the expansion of trade, the production of more food, emergence of factory workers as a new class.

(b) Mention about the new dynamics brought in politics.
Answer:
The rise and growth of cities resulting in rapid urbanisation and organised working-class , movements, seeking voting rights and regulation of their service conditions, brought about new dynamics in politics.

(c) How did it affect the environment?
Answer:
The use of chemicals and fossil fuels that replaced wind, water and firewood resulted in increased air and water pollution.

(d) Write about the report published by the British Parliament in 1842.
Answer:
In 1842, the British Parliament published a report about the state of coal mining – the Mines Report – and the report informed the public that children under five years of age worked underground as trappers for 12 hours a day and for a daily wage of 2 pennies; older girls carried baskets of coal which caused deformities.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 3.
Socio – economic consequences
(a) Who were pauperized and who became wealthy?
Answer:
While the peasants were pauperized and the working class suffered, the middle class became wealthy by investing capital in trade and industry.

(b) What was the conditions of the Labourers?
Answer:
Labourers were not permitted to form trade unions. The governments were influenced by the middle class. All legislations safeguarded their interests.

(c) What was the new ideology born at this time in Europe?
Answer:
It was under these circumstances that socialism as a new ideology was bom in Europe.

(d) What was advocated by Karl Marx?
Answer:
Karl Marx advocated scientific socialism for the protection of the working class from the exploitative policies of the capitalist class.

Question 4.
Industrial Revolution in France
(a) Why did the French businessmen take refuge in Britain during the Revolution?
Answer:
France did not possess as much natural resources as England. The Political instability caused by the French Revolution and the prolonged Napoleonic wars wrecked the country. Many of the French businessmen sought refuge in Britain during the Revolution.

(b) What did they do on their return?
Answer:
These people on their return to France after Napoleonic wars, used British technology. This helped to accomplish industrial revolution in their country. The adoption of British-made spindles led to a two-fold increase in French textile production during 1830-1860.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

(c) How did the town of Muihouse become prominent?
Answer:
The Town of Muihouse in the province of Alsace rose to prominence for its dyes. It became prominent as a maker of machines.

(d) When were the two biggest automobile companies of France started?
Answer:
The two biggest automobile companies of today’s France were started in 1891.

Question 5.
Industrial Revolution in Germany.
(a) How did the national resources of Germany speed up the industrial revolution in Germany?
Answer:
Germany had the natural resources ‘required for an industrial revolution. Large coal reserves were located in the areas of Saar, Ruhr, Upper Silesia, and Saxony. Iron was deposited in the areas of Erzgebirge, Harz Mountains, and Upper Silesia again.

(b) What was Germany’s main challenge?
Answer:
Germany’s main challenge was its feudal socio-political structure, perpetuating the practice of serfdom and their unhelpful policies for establishing factories.

(c) Mention the two major ports with access to the North Sea.
Answer:
The two major ports, Bremen and Hamburg, had clear and secure access to the North Sea.

(d) How did the Germans view about the Cartels?
Answer:
The Germany saw Cartels as providing for the growth of small industries. It spared them from sometimes unprofitable and self districting price wars. It also provided protection in cases of price fluctuations and the entry of foreign competition.

VI. Answer the following questions briefly

Question 1.
Explain the term industrial revolution.
Answer:

  1. In the latter half of the 18th Century major changes occurred in the method of production that changed the history of mankind.
  2. This profound transformation is described as the Industrial Revolution.

Question 2.
How was Thomas Newcomen helpful to the British Mine owners.
Answer:

  1. In the 18th Century, British mine-owners were faced with the problem of water seeping into the mines.
  2. Water had to be removed to extract coal.
  3. So they employed labourers to pump the water out. But it cost a lot of money.
  4. It was at that juncture the British engineer, Thomas Newcomen invented a contrive to pump the water out of mines.

Question 3.
What was the contribution of James Watt?
Answer:

  1. James Watt, a Scottish engineer, converted a stationary steam engine to a rotary engine.
  2. It consumed less fuel.

Question 4.
Mention about the factory centres.
Answer:

  1. The newly invented machines enabled factories to produce textile goods in large quantities.
  2. Derbyshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, and Yorkshire became the major factory centres.
  3. The most notable was Manchester which had more than 50 mills in 1802.
  4. These factories involved in mass production were organized on the principle of division of labour.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 5.
Why did coal mines become deeper and deeper?
Answer:

  1. As industrialisation gained pace, more and more coal was needed to fuel steam engines and furnaces.
  2. The development of factories by Arkwright and the improvement of the steam engine by James Watt further increased demand for coal.
  3. As a result, coal mines became deeper and deeper.

Question 6.
When did the modern rail transport commence?
Answer:

  1. Modem rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century.
  2. The first railwayline in England was opened between Stockton and Darlington in 1825.
  3. In the next forty years 15,000 miles of railways network was completed.

Question 7.
How did the Industrial revolution affect the environment?
Answer:

  1. The use of chemicals and fossil fuels that replaced wind, water and firewood resulted in increased air and water pollution.
  2. The Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in earth’s ecology and humans’ relationship with the environment.

Question 8.
“Manchester became the textile capital of the world” – Give reasons.
Answer:

  1. Manchester’s cool climate was ideal for textile production.
  2. Further it was situated close to the part of Liverpool and the Coal fields of Lancashire.
  3. In 1771, Manchester was a sleepy town of 22,000 people.
  4. Over the next fifty years, its population exploded and reached 1,80,000.
  5. Therefore Manchester became the textile capital of the world, drawing huge numbers of migrants to the city.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 9.
When was the new ideology socialism born in Europe?
Answer:

  1. While the peasants were pauperized and the working class suffered, the middle class became wealthy by investing capital in trade and industry.
  2. The governments of the day were influenced by them.
  3. All legislations safeguarded their interests.
  4. Labourers were not permitted to form trade unions.
  5. It was under these circumstances that Socialism as a new ideology was bom in Europe.

Question 10.
Who were Luddites?
Answer:

  1. Combination Laws of 1799 prohibited the formation of associations of workers.
  2. In the early decades of the nineteenth century there were Luddites.
  3. Fearing the loss of jobs due to the introduction of machines, Luddites protested by wrecking machines.
  4. The Combination Laws were repealed in 1824.
  5. Yet the workers could not form a national union.

Question 11.
What were the demands of the Chartism?
Answer:
Known as Chartism, this working class movement was active between 1836 and 1848. The Chartists called for voting rights to every man over twenty-one years of age, secret ballot (voting), abolition of property qualification for members of the parliament, annual parliamentary elections and equal representation.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 12.
Define the term Cartel
Answer:

  1. Cartel is an association of manufacturers or suppliers.
  2. Its main purpose is to maintain prices at a higher level and to restrict competition.

Question 13.
What was the impact ef Zollverein Customs Union on Germany?
Answer:

  1. Zollverein Customs Union, comprising neighbouring German provinces, imposed tariffs on imported manufactured goods and overseas colonial goods.
  2. At the same time, it allowed free trade among provinces.
  3. This measure opened a wider market and new sources of raw materials.
  4. Without the Zollverein, an industrialised and unified Germany would not have been possible.

Question 14.
How did Germany surpassed the home of the industrial revolution, Great Britain?
Answer:

  1. In electrics, Germany offered companies like Siemens.
  2. In chemicals, Germany excelled in the production of potassium salt, dyes, pharmaceutical products, and synthetics.
  3. Companies like Bayer and Hoechst led the chemical industry of Germany.
  4. Germany became a leader in automobile industry.
  5. Daimler and Benz became the most popular brands of automobiles in Germany and the world.

Question 15.
What was the role played by Andrew Carnegie in the held of steel?
Answer:

  1. Andrew Carnegie established the first steel mills in the U.S for mass production.
  2. He acquired business interests in the mines that produced the raw materials for steel, the mills and ovens that created the final product and the railroad and shipping lines that transported goods.
  3. This controlled every aspect of the steelmaking process.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 16.
Mention the eauie for the growth of labour unions?
Answer:
The difficult working conditions in the factories, long hours of work, low wages, exploitation of women and children contributed to the growth of labour unions.

Question 17.
Write about the Great Railroad strike of 1877.
Answer:

  1. After the Civil War, workers organized strikes in U.S.A. One major strike was the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
  2. Wage cuts in the railroad industry, in the context of a prolonged economic depression, led to the strike.
  3. It began in West Virginia and spread to three additional states over a period of 45 days.
  4. It was crushed by a combination of vigilantes, National Guardsmen, and Federal Army.

Question 18.
When was the labour day celebrated in Chennai?
Answer:

  1. In India, Labour day was first celebrated on May 1, 1923 in Chennai.
  2. The celebrations were organised by the Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan, founded by M. Singaravelu.
  3. He was one of the early leaders of the Communist Party of India.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Mention the main attributes of the Industrial Revolution.
Answer:
The main attributes of the Industrial Revolution were technological, socio-economic and cultural.

  1. Use of new basic materials: iron and steel
  2. Use of new energy sources: coal, electricity, petroleum
  3. Invention of new machines such as the spinning jenny and the power loom that increased the production with a minimum expending of human energy
  4. Emergence of a new organization known as the factory system, which entailed increased division of labour and specialisation of work
  5. Development in transportation and communication
  6. Increasing application of science to industry
  7. The use of new technology

Question 2.
The Industrial Revolution began in England first. Why?
Answer:
The Industrial Revolution began in England first because, it had certain objective conditions.
They were:

  1. England had abundant resources and possessed colonies, with India being “the brightest jewel in the British Crown”
  2. Access to coal, iron and raw cotton from the colonies.
  3. England possessed the required infrastructure for textiles, developed by immigrant artisans from the Netherlands.
  4. England had a developed banking system, a growing entrepreneurial class, and potential investors.
  5. Encouragement of the Royal Society of England for scientific discoveries and inventions.
  6. Political stability of England to bestow its full attention to industrial growth.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution

Question 3.
Mention the development in textiles due to industrial revolution in Great Britain.
Answer:

  1. In 1733 John Kay invented the ‘Flying Shuttle’ increasing the speed of the weaving of cloth. In 1767 James Hargreaves invented ‘the spinning jenny’ which spun eight threads at one and the same time.
  2. Richard Arkwright invented the ‘waterframe’ which used water power in the place of manpower.
  3. In 1779 Samuel Crompton invented his ‘spinning mule’ which included a combination of both the ‘spinning jenny’ and the ‘water frame’. It spun hundreds of threads simultaneously.
  4. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. Removing the seed from the cotton increased the productivity manifold.
  5. Textile manufacture was at the heart of the Industrial Revolution. Over a span of fifty years, the textile manufacturing industry in Britain witnessed a transformation in the method of production from handmade to machine-made goods.
  6. The newly invented machines enabled factories to produce textile goods in large quantities.
  7. Derbyshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, and Yorkshire became the major factory centres.
  8. The most notable was Manchester which had more than 50 mills in 1802.

Question 4.
The Coal production in England increased from 4.7 million tonnes in 1750 to 250 million tonnes in 1900. Give reasons.
Answer:

  1. Industrial Revolution required fuel.
  2. Coal was needed in vast quantities.
  3. Before the Industrial Revolution, two types of mines existed: drift mines and bell pits.
  4. Both were small scale coal mines and the extracted coal was used in homes and local work spots.
  5. As industrialisation gained pace, more and more coal was needed to fuel steam engines and furnaces.
  6. The development of factories by Arkwright and the improvement of the steam engine by James Watt further increased demand for coal.
  7. As a result, coal mines became deeper and deeper, making it more and more dangerous.
  8. As miners used oil lamps in the mines the risk of explosion was high leading to the death of miners.
  9. This was reduced by the invention of a safety lamp by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1815.

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