Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Colonialism in Asia and Africa Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
__________ was brought to the attention of the East India Company by Francis Light.
(a) Spice islands
(b) Java island
(c) Penang island
(d) Malacca
Answer:
(c) Penang island

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 2.
In 1896__________ states were formed into Federated Malay States
(a) Four
(b) Five
(c) Three
(d) Six
Answer:
(a) Four

Question 3.
__________ was the only part of Indo-China which was directly under French Control.
(a) Annam
(b) Tong king
(c) Cambodia
(d) Cochin-China
Answer:
(d) Cochin-China

Question 4.
The Discovery of gold in the__________ led to a large number of British miners settled in and around Johannesburg.
(a) Transvaal
(b) Orange Free State
(c) Cape Colony
(d) Rhodesia
Answer:
(a) Transvaal

Question 5.
__________ became the first European power to establish trade with India.
(a) Portuguese
(b) French
(c) Danes
(d) Dutch
Answer:
a) Portuguese

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 6.
Ethiopia defeated Italy at the battle of __________
(a) Adowa
(b) Dahomey
(c) Tonking
(d) Transvaal
Answer:
(a) Adowa

Question 7.
Indentured labour system was a form of __________
(a) contract labour system
(b) slavery
(c) debt bondage
(d) serfdom
Answer:
(c) debt bondage

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. _______ Conference resolved to divide Africa into spheres of influence of the various European Powers
  2. The settlement made with the zamindars of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa is _______
  3. _____ was the main source of revenue for the British.
  4. ______ were money lenders in the Tamil speaking areas.

Answer:

  1. The Berlin Colonial
  2. Permanent settlement
  3. Land tax
  4. Nattukottai Chettiyars

III. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) Until the last quarter of the 19th century, Africa south of Sahara was unknown to the world.
(ii) The coastal states of Gold Coast became a British colony in 1864.
(iii) Spain ruled the Philippines for over 500 years.
(iv) The famine of 1876-78 occurred in Odhisha.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) & (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Question 2.
(i) The French had occupied Java and Sumatra in 1640.
(ii) The Dutch began their conquest of the English Settlements by capturing Malacca.
(iii) Berlin Conference met to decide all issues connected with the Congo River basin.
(iv) The possessions of Sultan of Zanzibar were divided into French and German spheres of influence.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) & (i) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): In the Madras Presidency, the famine of 1876-78 was preceded by droughts.
Reason (R): Because of the colonial government’s policy of Laissez Faire in the trade of food-grains.
(a) A is correct, R is wrong
(b) Both A & R are wrong
(c) A is correct, R is not the correct explanation of A
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A
Answer:
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Berlin Conference agreed to the rule of Leopold II in Congo Free State.
Reason (R): Leopold II, King of Belgium, showed interest in Congo.
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are correct and R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is correct and R is wrong d) A is wrong but R is correct
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

IV. Match the following:

  1. Leopold – (a) Ethiopia
  2. Menelik – (b) Vietnam
  3. Cecil Rhodes – (c) Belgium
  4. Bengal famine – (d) Cape colony
  5. Bao Dai – (e) 1770

Answer:

  1. (c)
  2. (a)
  3. (d)
  4. (e)
  5. (b)

V. Answer the following briefly:

Question 1.
Distinguish between Colonialism and Imperialism.
Answer:
a. Colonialism.

  1. Colonialism is a process of domination, involving the subjugation of one people by another.
  2. The term colony comes from the Latin word colonus, meaning farmer.
  3. This root indicates that the practice of colonialism usually involved the transfer of population to a new territory

b. Imperialism

  1. Imperialism comes from the Latin term imperium meaning to command.
  2. It draws attention to the way one country exercises power over another.
  3. It may be through settlement, sovereignty, or indirect mechanisms of control.

Question 2.
Write a note on Zulu tribe.
Answer:

  1. The Zulu tribe was known for its strong fighting spirit, represented by renowned warriors like Shaka Zulu.
  2. He played a prominent role in building the largest Zulu nation is south-eastern Africa.
  3. British troops invaded Zulu territory and divided it into thirteen chiefdoms.
  4. The Zulus never regained their independence and had to fight against deeply entrenched racism in South Africa for about a century.

Question 3.
State the three phases in the Colonfalisation of Indian economy.
Answer:
We can divide the process of the colonialisation of India into three phases.

  1. Phase I Mercantilist Capitalism.
  2. Phase II Industrial Capitalism.
  3. Phase III Financial Capitalism.

Question 4.
Colonel Pennycuick.
Answer:

  1. Colonel Pennycuick was an army Engineer and Civil Servant who also served as member of the Madras Legislative Council.
  2. He wanted to irrigate lakhs of acres of dry land dependent on the Vaigai river.
  3. Since he could not get adequate funds from the British government, he sold his family property and completed the project in 1895.
  4. Mullai Periyar Dam continues to irrigate agricultural lands in Theni, Dindigul, Madurai, Sivaganga and Ramanathapuram districts.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 5.
Explain Home Charges.
Answer:

  1. The East India company remitted to England what was called Home Charges.
  2. It included the dividends on East India’s stock, interest on debt, savings from salaries and the pensions of officers and establishments and buildings in the India Office, London, transporting cost of British troops to and form India.
  3. This drain of wealth in the form of Home Charges in course of time rose to 16 million pounds per year.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each heading

Question 1.
Colonialism in India
(a) When did the East India Company acquire the Diwani Right?
(b) When were the Gurkhas conquered by the British?
(c) When was slavery abolished in British India?
(d) When did Burma become a part of the Madras Presidency?
Answer:
(a) The East India Company acquired the Diwani right in 1765 and became the revenue farmer of the Mughal Emperor.
(b) The Gurkhas were conquered by the British in 1816.
(c) Slavery was abolished in India in 1843 and the system of indentured labour was introduced.
(d) In the Madras Presidency, the famine of 1876-78 was preceded by droughts.

Question 2.
South Africa
(a) Name the states possessed by the British in South Africa.
(b) What were the territories held by the Dutch?
(c) Who was the Prime Minister of Cape colony?
(d) How long did Boer Wars last?
Answer:
(a) In South Africa the British possessed Natal, Cape colony.
(b) The Dutch held the states of the Transvaal and Orange free state,
(c) Cecil Rhodes was the Prime Minister of Cape colony.
(d) The Boer war lasted three years (1899-1902).

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Discuss the economic impact of British Rule in India.
Answer:
There are three phases under the colonisation of the Indian Economy.
a. Phase I Mercantilist Capitalism

  1. Before it gained dominion in India, the East India company carried on a very profitable business selling Indian – made cotton textiles and silks and printed cloth.
  2. It was during this period that the textile lobby in Lancashire and Birmingham succeeded in making the Parliament enact a law prohibiting the import of Indian textiles.
  3. Those who were found in possession of or dealing in Indian cotton goods were fined 200 pounds.
  4. The company acquired the Diwani right in 1765.
  5. East India Company crushed every industry which came in conflict with British industry. The ship building industry collapsed manufacture of paper and glass dwindled.
  6. India which had became the ‘Lancashire of the Eastern World’ began to lose its Position.

b. Phase II Industrial Capitalism

  1. By the beginning of nineteenth century the Company had emerged as a territorial power.
  2. During this period India was converted into a market for British textiles and a great source of raw materials.
  3. Home charges were special types of contribution which were used by the British government for meeting various types of expenses for maintenance of the colony.
  4. These consist of payments of pensions and salaries of British people staying in India and industries earned on external debt of India.
  5. Surphases from the trade were used for making these payments.

c. Phase III Financial Capitalism

  1. The company government decided to make a massive investment in railroads, the postal system, irrigation, modem banking and education with its surplus capital.
  2. All these investments were made for the benefit of the British. The railways helped to move British troops quickly across the country as well as enabled the conquest of the Indian market to the maximum extent.
  3. The Company, supported by the English Parliament, encouraged British investment in railways with a guaranteed annual interest of 5 per cent.
  4. Mining companies were given for nominal fees and low royalties.
  5. Land for cultivation of coffee, tea, pepper and rubber was given at a throwaway price.
  6. Removing slavery in 1843, introduced indentured labour.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 2.
Explain the process of colonisation in Africa.
Answer:
a. South Africa

  1. In South Africa the British possessed Natal, Cape Colony, while the Dutch (locally known as the Boers) held the states of the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
  2. In 1890, Cecil Rhodes, the Prime Minister of Cape colony encouraged British expansion to the north of the Transvaal.
  3. Finally Boer War took place between 1899-1902, worsening the situation of the Boers. Finally the four states decide to form a union and South Africa as a state was bom in 1909.
  4. The Zulu tribe represented by renowned warriors like Shaka Zulu built the largest Zulu nation in south – eastern Africa.

b. Rhodesia

  1. The British South Africa Company conducted an expedition. During the next ten years African opposition was crushed. White immigrants were provided with farm lands and railways, and a telegraph system developed.
  2. The colony came to be known as Rhodesia under Cecil Rhodes.

c. West Africa

  1. The coastal states of Gold of Gold Coast became a British colony in 1854. Nigeria was used for slave trading posts on the coast.
  2. Senegal became the French base in west Africa.
  3. Leopold II of Belgium conquered Congo which was taken over by Belgian government in 1908.

d. East Africa

  1.  In 1886, the possessions of the Sultan of Zanzibar were divided into British and German spheres of influence.
  2. In 1895 the British government assumed authority and formed the East African Protectorate, which included Kenya, Uganda and Zanzibar.
  3. The German East Africa was economically exploited and the most serious rebellion was the Maji-Maji rebellion (1905-1907).

e. Portuguese Angola and Mozambique

  1. Portuguese occupied these two colonies on the west and east coasts of Southern Africa.
  2. The Africans were kept in conditions of slavery.

f. African Rule in Liberia and Ethiopia

  1. Only two countries managed to evade European colonialism – Liberia and Ethiopia.
  2. Liberia was formed with early 19th Century as a home for African Blacks repatriated from America.
  3. Ethiopia was ruled by the Emperor Menelik who modernised his country with the introduction of railways and electricity.

Activity

Question 2.
Attempt an account of the cultural relations between India and Southeast Asia.
Answer:

  1. South east Asia was under Indian influence starting around 200 B C.
  2. Kingdoms in the south east coast of the Indian sub continent had established trade, cultural and political relations with southeast Asian Kingdoms in Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, Malay Peninsula Cambodia and Vietnam.
  3. Southern Indian traders, adventures, teachers and priests continued to be the dominating
    influence in Southeast Asia until about 1500 C E.
  4. The Government of India’s ‘Act East Policy’ aims at improving economic and political relations with the Southeast Asian region.
  5. India has been able to make in roads in trade and investments with members of the ASEAN by signing a Free Trade Agreement in 2009.
  6. In Cambodia, Thailand and Indonesia or Burma today many symbolic remnants of India’s influence are clearly visible in their art, culture and civilization.
  7. The eleven countries of ASEAN are Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Combodia, Laos, Brunei, the Philippines and recently added Timor heste.
  8. Temples ofAngkorwat, Pagn and Prambanan bear evidence to the deep penesation of Indian art and architectural forms in there famous Southeast Asian movements.
  9. Folklore singers and aristes played a very important role in popularising and modifying Indian liberary works in Southeast Asia.
  10. Similarly sculptors and artists copied and combined original Indian profits with local artistic motifs to arrive at something distinctively Southeast Asian.
  11. The influence of India can also be felt in the food and flavours of Southeast Asia.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Assignment

Question 1.
Arrange a debate in the class room on the merits and demerits of the British rule in India.
Answer:
a. Merits

  1. In the cause of humanity – abolition of suti and female infanticide.
  2. Removal of things Pindaris and other such pests of the Indian Society.
  3. In the cause of civilisation educate to both male and female, leading gradually to the distinction of superstition.
  4. Politically peace and order established. Freedom of speech and liberty of the press was enjoyed. Improvement of government in the native states. Security of life and property.
  5. Materially Development of a’ few valuable products such as indigo, tea, coffee, silk etc., Increase of exports, Telegraphs.

b. Demerits

  1. Repeated breach of pledges to give the natives a fair and reasonable share in the higher administration of their own country.
  2. Natives of India were not treated as British subjects.
  3. The British disregarded the feelings and views of the natives.
  4. All attention was engrossed in devising new modes of taxation without any adequate effort to increase the means of the people to pay.

c. Sentance

  1. To sump up the whole the British rule has been morally a great blessing, politically peace and order on one had, blunders on the other, materially impoverishment.
  2. Social reforms, Education Reforms, Employment scheme, Irrigation scheme, Infrastructure development, monuments, legal tenders, heritage site all these gifts from the British Raj.
  3. Divide and rule policy, loss of lives, exploitation of resources impliment of Tax structure all them affected the Indian society.

Question 2.
Explore the Impact of colonialism in British Burma
Answer:

  1. The chain of events following the Third Anglo – Burmese war dealt a bitter blow to Myanmar.
  2. The loss of independence was painful enough, worse still were the British decisions to eliminate the monarchy.
  3. Moreover the British eliminated the office of the patriarch of the Buddhist clergy.
  4. The demise of the monarchy and the monkhood, the twin pillars of the society of Myanmar, was perhaps the most devastating aspect of the colonial period.
  5. The colonial period was one of great social disintegration by separating the Sangha and the state.
  6. The British impact on the system of economy of Myanmar proved disastrous, as Burma’s economy became part of the vast export oriented enterprize of western colonialism the traditional Burmese economy collapsed.
  7. Although the Burmese economy and transportation infrastructure developed rapidly from 1890 to 1900, the majority of Burmese people did not benefit from it.
  8. Roads had been built by the government, but they were meant for the swift transport of troops.
  9. The extraction of petroleum and timbers was monopolized by two British firms. The balance of trade was always infavour of Burma, but that meant little to Burmese people or society.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Colonialism in Asia and Africa Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
The Latin word ‘Colonus’ means.
(a) farmer
(b) colony
(c) taxes
(d) slavery
Answer:
(a) farmer

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 2.
Rudyard kipling was a _________
(a) Ruler
(b) Colonist
(c) Writer
(d) Soldier
Answer:
(c) writer

Question 3.
Whiteman’s burden was to _________
(a) educate
(b) civilise
(c) Conquer
(d) invent
Answer:
(b) civilse

Question 4.
The term “South East – Asia’ has been used since the _________
(a) First World War
(b) Civil War
(c) Second Wotld War
(d) Cold War
Answer:
(c) Second World War

Question 5.
Albuquerque belonged to _________
(a) Spain
(b) Portugal
(c) Italy
(d) England
Answer:
(b) Portugal

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 6.
Djakarta was called _________
(a) Batavia
(b) Malacca
(c) Bantam
(d) Manila
Answer:
(a) Batavia

Question 7.
Java and Sumatra were occupied by the _________
(a) Spanish
(b) British
(c) French
(d) Dutch
Answer:
(d) Dutch

Question 8.
Burma was well known for its _________
(a) Teak and Rice
(b) Silk and Muslin
(c) Gold and Silver
(d) Chemicals
Answer:
(a) Teak and Rice

Question 9.
The Capital of the French government in India-China was _________
(a) Ann am
(b) Tongking
(c) Hanoi
(d) Lovos
Answer:
(c) Hanoi

Question 10.
In 1898, Philippines became the colony of _________
(a) England
(b) America
(c) Portugal
(d) France
Answer:
(b) America

Question 11.
The Royal Niger company was formed in ______
(a) 1880
(b) 1890
(c) 1886
(d) 1876
Answer:
(c) 1886

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. In Siam, the country’s partially independent cities were called _______
  2. The Berlin conference declared that _______ basin to be neutral.
  3. The Zulu Tribe was known for its strong _______
  4. The British South African company was established in _______
  5. Leopold II, King of Belgium, showed interest in _______
  6. Maji-Maji rebellion was caused by the _________
  7. Vascodagama arrived in Calicut in _________
  8. was an army engineer and civil servant.
  9. Under the permanent settlement the cultivators more at the mercy of _________
  10. Mahajans, Sahukars and bohras were _________

Answer:

  1. Mueang
  2. Congo river
  3. fighting spirit
  4. 1889
  5. Congo
  6. Germans
  7. 1498
  8. Colonel Pennyeuick
  9. Zamindars
  10. Money lenders

III. Match the following

  1. Spice Islands – (i) Indonesia
  2. Civil war – (ii) Foreigners
  3. Sarawak – (iii) Malay States
  4. Uitlanders – (iv) West Africa
  5. Ivory coast – (v) Massacre of Amboina

Answer:

  1. (e)
  2. (c)
  3. (a)
  4. (b)
  5. (d)

IV. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) Colonialism is a process of domination.
(ii) The great international emporium of Malacca was captured by the British.
(iii) Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post.
(iv) Most – Indonesians were metal workers.
(a) (i) and (iii) are correct
(b) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(a) (i) and (iii) are correct!

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 2.
(i) Boer states were given full responsible government in 1900.
(ii) Rhodesia was named after Cecil Rhodes.
(iii) Mendik surrendered to the Europeans.
(iv) R.C. Dutt was an Indian nationalist economist.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (i) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(b) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): Even in times of famines no remission was given to the peasants.
Reason (R): The land tax was the main source of revenue to the British.
(a) A is correct, R is wrong
(b) Both A and R are wrong
(c) A is correct, R is not the correct explanation of A
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A
Answer:
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A

Question 4.
Assertion (A): The British emerged as a territorial power in India.
Reason (R): The British conquered all the regional powers through various wars.
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are correct and R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is correct and R is wrong
(d) A is wrong but R is correct
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A

V. Answer the following briefly:

Question 1.
How did some political philosophers defend colonialism?
Answer:

  1. Some political philosophers defended colonialism and imperialism arguing that their action was a civilizing mission.
  2. The rationale was that a temporary period of political dependence or tutelage was necessary for uncivilized societies to advance to the point.
  3. This is captured by the phrase ‘The whiteman’s Burden’ in a poem by Rudyard Kipling.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 2.
How did European colonisation of Africa take place without any outbreak of war?
Answer:

  1. The interior of Africa was unexplored.
  2. After 1875, European penetration and colonisation began on a large scale.
  3. The Berlin Colonial Conference of 1884-85 resolved to divide Africa into sphers of influence of the various European powers.
  4. European Colonisation of Africa was thus accomplished smoothly without any outbreak of war amongst major European powers.

Question 3.
Write about the Berlin conference of 1884-85.
Answer:

  1. Berlin conference of 1884-85 is also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference.
  2. It met to decide all issues connected with the Congo River basin in Central Africa.
  3. The conference proposed by Portugal to discuss its claim to control the Congo river basin was rejected.
  4. It declared the Congo River basin to be neutral and guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin.

Question 4.
How were the Boers affected by Boer war?
Answer:

  1. The Boers suffered greatly in the war.
  2. Their farms and crops were destroyed and Boer women and children were confined to internment camps.
  3. The shortage of food, beds, medical and sanitary facilities caused the death of 26,000 people.
  4. Boer states were given full responsible government in 1907.

Question 5.
What were the changes brought by the British and the Germans in East Africa?
Answer:

  1. In 1886 the possessions of the Sultan of Zanzibar were divided into British and German spheres of influence.
  2. In 1895, the British government assumed authority and formed the East African protectorate in Kenya, Uganda and Zanzibar.
  3. The ruler of Uganda was very weak and inefficient and the British established their indirect rule.
  4. In German East Africa, the Africans were economically exploited leading to a number of rebellions. The most serious was the Maji-Maji rebellion.

Question 6.
Write a note on the Emperor Meneiik.
Answer:

  1. Ethiopia with its traditional polity, was ruled by the Emperor Meneiik.
  2. Under him, Ethiopia defeated Italy at the battle of Adowa in 1896.
  3. After this, their independence could not be curtailed by any European power.
  4. Meneiik modernised his country by the introduction of railways and electricity.

Question 7.
How did the British emerge as a territorial power in India?
Answer:

  1. In the rivalry among four major European powers- Portuguese, Dutch, French and English – the English, after three camatic wars, eliminated the French by the end of the eighteenth century.
  2. The British conquered all the regional powers, in particular, the most potential challengers, the Mysore Sultans and the Marathas by defeating them in three Anglo-Mysore wars and three Anglo-Maratha wars.
  3. The conquest of the Gurkhas in,1816, the Sindhis in 1843 and the Sikhs in 1849.
  4. Thus the British emerged as a territorial power in India.

Question 8.
What did R.C. Dutt comment on Indian weaving?
Answer:

  1. According to the Indian nationalist economist RX.Dutt, weaving was the national industry of the people and spinning was the pursuit of millions of women.
  2. Indian textiles went to England and other parts of Europe to China and Japan and Burma and Arabia and Persia and parts of Africa.
  3. At this time only the British parliament passed a law prohibiting the import of Indian textiles.

Question 9.
Explain the term mercantilism
Answer:

  1. Mercantilism refers to a number of prevailing economic theories applied by the state in its effort to attain wealth and power.
  2. European countries pursued mercantilism as a kind of national economic policy designed to maximize their trade, especially to maximise the accumulation of gold and silver.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 10.
Write a note on Robert Clive.
Answer:

  1. In 1750s and the early 1760s, Robert Clive gained control of the wealthiest part of the old Mughal Empire.
  2. The company availed concessions such as exemption of company goods from transit duties, which even Indian merchants had to pay.
  3. After the Battle of Plassey (1757), the company got 1.2 million pounds out of which Clive himself took 31,500 pounds besides a jagir which provided an annual income of 27,000 pounds.
  4. After the Battle of Buxar (1764) the Murshidabad treasury was looted. The company acquired the Diwani right in 1765.

Question 11.
How did the company government use the surplus capital in England?
Answer:

  1. The company government decided to make a massive investment in railroads, the posted system irrigation, modem banking and education with its surplus capital.
  2. The capital exported was predominantly for railway construction.
  3. The railways helped to move British troops quickly across the country.
  4. It also enabled the conquest of the Indian market to the maximum extent.

Question 12.
Why was the indentured labour introduced?
Answer:

  1. In order to facilitate the supply of labour to work on plantations in British overseas colonies, slavery was abolished in India (1843).
  2. The system of indentured labour was introduced.

Question 13.
How did the permanent settlement (1793) affect the cultivators?
Answer:

  1. According to permanent settlement to British dealt with the landlords or the Zamindars directly.
  2. These Zamindars were given total freedom to do what they liked with their tenants.
  3. As a result the cultivation were reduced to the position of mere tenants.

Question 14.
Explain the Ryotwari System.
Answer:

  1. The Ryotwari system was a different revenue system introduced in South India.
  2. Under this system, the peasant was the proprietor and paid tax on the land.
  3. The government dealt with him directly.
  4. He was entitled to remain in possession of land acquired by him so long as he paid the land revenue.
  5. In case of default, apart from eviction and attachment of livestock, even household property or personal belongings could be attached.

Question 15.
How were the peasants affected by money lenders?
Answer:

  1. Money lending had been practiced since time immemorial.
  2. But earlier the lenders lent at their own risk. But the British enacted a law allowing them to attach land or property in default of repayment.
  3. The peasant was therefore at the mercy of the money-lenders during times of droughts, floods and famines.
  4. This resulted in land changing hands from the cultivating class to the non-cultivating class, leading to absentee landlordism.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 16.
Explain the term commercialisation of crops.
Answer:

  1. The colonial state pursued a policy of commercialisation of agriculture.
  2. Commercial crops like cotton, jute, groundnuts, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco, etc., depending on the market demands fetched better prices than food grains.
  3. In order to clear the debt the peasants began to raise crops for the markets, instead for home consumption.

VI. Answer all questions given under each heading

Question 1.
Malayan Peninsula
(a) What was the reason for the European traders to come to South-east Asia?
Answer:
When European traders crossed the Indian ocean at the close of the 15th century, they came for the spices of South-east Asia.

(b) Who was Albuquerque?
Answer:
Albuquerque was a Portuguese soldier who conquered Goa and Malacca. His successors were interested in spice trade.

(c) Who challenged the presence of the Portuguese?
Answer:
After the arrival of the Dutch and the English there was a challenge to the presence of the Portuguese.

(d) When did the Dutch Capture Malacca?
Answer:
The Dutch cptured Mlcca in 1641

Question 2.
Anglo-Dutch rivalry in Southeast Asia
(a) What market the beginning of the British expansion into the Malay Peninsula?
Answer:
In 1786, the settlement of George Town was made at the North eastern tip of Penang Island; this marked the beginning of the British expansion into the Malay Peninsula.

(b) Who was Stamford Raffles?
Answer:
In 1819, Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch.

(c) When was the strait settlements made?
Answer:
By 1826, Singapore and Malacca had been linked with Penang to form the strait settlements.

(d) How did the British react to the civil war between 1874 and 1895?
Answer:
Between 1874 and 1895 there was a givil war between the remaining five Malay states. The British intervened and signed an agreement with each of the sultans. British Residents were appointed to the courts of sultans, who had to act in accordance with the advice given by the Residents.

Question 3.
Indonesia
(a) When did the Dutch occupying Indonesia ?
Answer:
The Dutch had occupied Java and Sumatra (Indonesia) as early as 1640.

(b) What was their altitude initially?
Answer:
Initially the Dutch were not interested in politics but focused on exploiting Indonesia ruthlessly.

(c) How did it change in the beginning the twentieth century?
Answer:
The beginning of the twentieth century they adopted measures for the social and economic advance of the people they governed.

(d) What made Indonesia a valuable colony of the Dutch?
Answer:
Heavy investments in these plantations and other concerns, and the discovery of oil in 1900 made Indonesia a valuable colony for the Dutch.

Question 4.
Burma
(a) When did the British Conquer Burma?
Answer:
The British conquered Burma after fighting three wars.

(b) How long did Burma remain part of India?
Answer:
Burma remained part of India from 1886 to 1937.

(c) By whom was Burma administered?
Answer:
Burma was administered by a Lieutenant Governor with the assistance of a nominated Legislative Council.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

(d) What was Burma famous for?
Answer:
Burma teak was shipped overseas. In addition, Burma with its rich soil became a big exporter , of rice. Most of South India was dependent on Burmese rice.

Question 5.
Indo China
(a) Who conquered Indo-China?
Answer:
The French conquered Indo-China starting in 1858, they brought the Indo-Chinese Union under their control by 1887.

(b) What did Indo china consist of?
Answer:
Indo-China consisted of Annam, Tongking, Cambodia and Cochin-China. Laos was added six years later.

(c) Which place was directly under the French.
Answer:
Cochin-China was directly under French control as a French colony.

(d) Which places were protectorates? Mention the capital of the French government.
Answer:
The remaining four were protectorates. Under this system, the local rulers remained, but they governed under the instructions of French Residents. Hanoi was the capital of the French government.

Question 6.
The Philippines
(a) Who ruled the Philippines?
Answer:
Spain ruled the Philippines for over 300 years, imposing its language, culture and religion.

(b) What was the result?
Answer:
Consequently the population became predominantly Roman Catholic.

(c) When did Nationalism develop among the Filipinos?
Answer:
Nationalism developed among the Filipinos during the latter part of the nineteenth century. There were two serious revolts in 1872 and 1896, which were crushed by the Spanish colonial government.

(d) How did Philippines become an American colony?
Answer:
In 1898, however, Spain was defeated by the United States in a war over Cuba, and as a result Philippines became an American colony.

Question 7.
Congo
(a) Who showed interest in Congo?
Answer:
Leopold II the King of Belgium showed interest in Congo and so the Berlin conference agreed to the rule of Leopold in Congo Free state.

(b) What was the monopoly trade given to this state?
Answer:
This state was given a monopoly of the trade in ivory and rubber, the two most valuable products of the Congo.

(c) How were these products collected?
Answer:
These products were collected with harshness. Africans were subjected to forced labour.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

(d) What made the Belgian government to intervene?
Answer:
The public outcry over the economic exploitation of Africans persuaded the Belgian Government of intervene. Congo passed form Leopold to Belgium.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Write a note on the famines which occurred in British India.
Answer:

  1. The policy of free trade and the forcible collection of land revenue resulted in the out break of famines.
  2. The Odisha famine of 1866-67 was a severe and terrible event.
  3. The famines of 1876-78 known as the Great famine of 1876-78 caused a large migration of agricultural labourers and artisans from Southern India to British colonies.
  4. Here they worked as indentured labourers on plantations.
  5. In the Madras Presidency, the famine of 1876-78 was preceded by droughts.
  6. The situation was made worse because of the colonial government’s policy of laissez faire in the trade of food grains.
  7. Two of the worst famine – afflicted areas in the Madras Presidency were the district of Ganjam and Vizagapatnam. They continued to export grains throughout the famine.
  8. These famines were typically followed by various infectious diseases.
  9. The memory of this famine is still preserved in various folk songs and ballads.
  10. The Bengal famine of 1770 as well as 1943 of British India took a heavy toll of human lives.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 11 Colonialism in Asia and Africa

Question 2.
Explain the term ‘Indentured Labour’
Answer:

  1. The Indentured Labour System was a form of debt bondage.
  2. By this system 3.5 million Indians were transported to various British colonies to provide labour for the plantations (mainly sugar).
  3. It started from 1843, the year of abolition of slavery in India and continued until 1920.
  4. This resulted in the development of a large Indian diaspora, which spread from the Indian Ocean (Reunion and Mauritius) to Pacific Ocean (Fiji), as well as contributing to the growth of Indo-Caribbean and Indo-African population.
  5. The Indenture system was a penal contract system.
  6. The contract made punishable the refusal of an indentured labourer to work or his abstention from work, or his defiance of the orders of his master or absconding.

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