Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science The Beginning of the Modern Age Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Who among the following is known as the Father of Humanism?
(a) Leonardo da Vinci
(b) Francisco Petrarch
(c) Erasmus
(d) Thomas More
Answer:
(b) Francisco Petrarch

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 2.
The School of Athens was painted by ______
(a) Raphael Sanzio
(b) Michelangelo
(c) Albrecht Durer
(d) Leaonard da Vinci
Answer:
(a) Raphael Sanzio

Question 3.
William Harvey discovered ______
(a) Heliocentric theory
(b) Geocentric theory
(c) Gravitational force
(d) Circulation of blood
Answer:
(d) Circulation of blood

Question 4.
Who wrote the 95 Theses’?
(a) Martin Luther
(b) Zwingli
(c) john Calvin
(d) Thomas More
Answer:
(a) Martin Luther

Question 5.
Who wrote the book Institutes of Christian Religion?
(a) Martin Luther
(b) Zwingli
(c) John Calvin
(d) Cervantes
Answer:
(c) John Calvin

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 6.
Which sailor was the first to cross the Equator?
(a) Henry, the Navigator
(b) Lopo Gonzalves
(c) Bartholomew Diaz
(d) Christopher Columbus
Answer:
(b) Lopo Gonzalves

Question 7.
_________ named the sea as Pacific Ocean as it was very calm.
(a) Columbus
(b) Amerigo Vespucci
(c) Ferdinand Magellan
(d) Vasco-da-gama
Answer:
(c) Ferdinand Magellan

Question 8.
The continent of America was named after ______
(a) Amerigo
(b) Vespucci
(c) Vaco da Gama
(d) Hermando Cortez
Answer:
(a) Amerigo

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 9.
______ was the headquarters of the Portuguese possession in the East.
(a) Manila
(b) Bombay
(c) Pondicherry
(d) Goa
Answer:
(d) Goa

Question 10.
Which among the following plants were introduced from America to Europe?
(a) Sugarcane
(b) Sweet Potato
(c) Rice
(d) Wheat
Answer:
(b) Sweet Potato

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. In 1453 Constantinople was captured by __________
  2. __________was known as Prince among Humanists.
  3. __________is famous for his paintings in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
  4. The reformation of the Catholic Church is known as __________
  5. The chief features of Commercial Revolution _________, __________ were , and __________

Answer:

  1. Ottoman Turks
  2. Erasmus
  3. Michelangelo
  4. Counter Reformation
  5. Banking, Joint-stock companies, growth of trade

III. Find out the correct statement:

Question 1.
(a) Martin Luther broke away from the Catholic Church because he was discriminate.
(b) John Calvin’s government in Geneva was liberal and fun-filled.
(c) King Henry’ VIII had deep theological differences with the Catholic Church.
(d) Council of Trent reemphasized the importance of ceremonies and significance of the mass
Answer:
(d) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 2.
(a) Discovery of new lands and sea routes shifted the economic centre from Italian city
states to Spain and Portugal.
(b) Horses were native to America.
(c) During the begining of the Modern Age, State did not interfere in economic activities.
(d) The Portuguese collaborated with the Arabs in its trading activities in India.
Answer:
(a) is correct

IV. Match the following:

Monopoly Trade Trial of Heretics
1. Feudalism (i) Monopoly
2. Humanism (ii) Trial of Heretics
3. Inquisition (iii) Movement of goods between America and Europe
4. Mercantilism (iv) Hierarchical socio-economic structure
5. Columbian Exchange (v) Human dignity

Answer:

  1. – (iv)
  2. – (v)
  3. – (ii)
  4. – (i)
  5. – (iii)

V. Answer the following questions briefly

Question 1.
Explain how the invention of printing press influenced Renaissance, Reformation and Geographical discoveries.
Answer:

  1. The printing press enabled the production of multiple copies of a manuscript and their spread all over western Europe.
  2. In less than fifty years after the invention of the Gutenberg printing press, about six million books had been printed.
  3. The invention of printing press not only spread knowledge widely, but also promoted critical thinking.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 2.
Write a short note on the impact of Renaissance.
Answer:

  1. Renaissance most important contribution was the idea of humanism.
  2. It marked a definite shift towards individualism, secularism and nationalism.
  3. The introduction and practice of writing in the vernacular, starting from Dante, enriched the growth of vernacular languages.
  4. Renaissance made a beginning in criticizing the corrupt and worldly practices of the Church.
  5. The curiosity kindled by the renaissance played a decisive role in the discovery of new ‘ land routes and remapping of the world.
  6. The spirit of adventurism and quest for knowledge impelled the mariners to sail into the high seas.

Question 3.
Outline the differences of Martin Luther with the Catholic Church.
Answer:

  1. Martin Luther rejected the belief that ceremonies and penances would lead to salvation.
  2. He argued that it was by faith alone that one could attain salvation.
  3. The grace of God would be bestowed by the divine will alone and not by the deeds of the people.
  4. Further, the Bible could be read and interpreted by all and not by the Church alone.
  5. Thus, he rejected the role of the Church as an intermediary between the individual and God.

Question 4.
Write a brief note on Counter Reformation.
Answer:

  1. The Protestant reformation posed a threat to the Catholic Church.
  2.  In order to meet the challenge, Pope Paul III and his successors introduced a number of rigorous reforms in the Church. They dealt with corruption severely and stopped the sale of offices.
  3. The Council of Trent reemphasized the importance of ceremonies and the significance of the mass.
  4. Further, it revitalized the Inquisition to deal with opposition to the Church. It also gave official sanction to the Society of Jesus.
  5. This reformation of the Catholic Church from within is known as Counter Reformation

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 5.
What is Columbian Exchange?
Answer:

  1.  One of the most important outcomes of the conquest of Americas by the European colonial powers was the movement of plants, animals, technology, culture and strange diseases between the Americas and Europe or between the New World and the Old World.
  2. This is known as Columbian Exchange.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Question 1.
Renaissance
(a) Give reasons as to why renaissance originated in the Italian city-states.
(b) Name some of the important humanists and their works.
(c) List the differences between medieval art and Renaissance art.
(d) Describe humanism.
Answer:
(a) The Italian city-states were centres of cultural activities since the fourteenth century. With the coming of the scholars and artists from Constantinople, there was a surge of enthusiasm and interest in studying classical literature and art of Greeks and Romans in the Italian city states. This creative upsurge was reflected in their writings, art, architecture and music. This cultural florescence is known as the renaissance.

(b) Important humanists – Their work

  1. Petrarch (Father of Human) – Canzoniere
  2. Dante – Divine Comedy
  3. Machiavelli – The Prince
  4. Erasmus – In Praise of Folly
  5. Sir Thomas More – Utopia
  6. Cervantes – Don Question

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(c) Renais sance paintings and sculptures were realistic and naturalistic. They improved over Medieval paintings and sculptures which were stylized, unrealistic and two dimensional. Renaissance portrayed natural landscapes, human anatomy, emotions and ideas.

(d) Humanism laid emphasis on human dignity and nature. Renaissance humanism promoted the view that humans are endowed with attributes that are to be used to achieve greatness.

Question 2.
Reformation
(a) Why did Martin Luther protest against the Church?
(b) What is the doctrine of justification by faith?
(c) Why did Henry VIII establish the Anglican Church?
(d) Mention the contribution of Ignatius Loyola.
Answer:
(a) Why did Martin Luther protest against the Church?

  1. Luxurious life of the officials of the Church.
  2. In order to meet the challenge, Pope Paul III and his successors introduced a number of rigorous reforms in the Church. They dealt with corruption severely and stopped the sale of offices.
  3. Sale of indulgences.
  4. The other corrupt practices of the church.

(b) Martin Luther argued that it was by faith alone that one could attain salvation. He put forward the doctrine of justification by faith. The grace of God would be bestowed by the divine will alone, and not by the deeds of the people.

(c) When King Henry VIII asked Pope to annul his marriage with Catherine, the Pope kept evading his decision. King Henry VIII grew impatient and broke his ties with Rome. He confiscated the properties of the Catholic Church and monasteries in England. He established the Anglican Church and declared himself the supreme of the Anglican Church.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(d) St. Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus to propagate Christianity. Its main work was through education and service to the destitute. It started a number of educational institutions, orphanages and homes for the destitute. Soon their missionaries were present in all parts of the world to spread the Catholic religion.

Question 3.
Geographical Discoveries
(a) Who is Henry, the Navigator?
(b) List the causes for the geographical discoveries.
(c) What led to the extinction of the natives of America?
(d) What is triangular trade?
Answer:
(a) Who is Henry, the Navigator?

  1. Henry the Navigator of Portugal laid the foundation for long distance sea voyages,
  2. He established a navigation school to train sailors.

(b) Seafaring and adventurous spirit to explore, curiosity generated by the Renaissance and the travel accounts of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta all contributed to geographical discoveries. The primary factor was economic. When the Ottoman Turks blocked the land route between the East and the West, spices and other goods became costlier. This intensified the urge to discover a new sea route to Asia.

(c) Many natives died because of epidermic diseases brought by the colonizers. The most dangerous weapons the natives had to encounter were the deadly diseases against which they were defenceless. It led to the near annihilation of the natives in most parts of the Americas.

(d) The Trans-Atlantic Trade was a triangular trade. The European countries purchased slaves from Africa who were transported to America. In return they got sugar and other raw materials from America. The European countries profited immensely from this trade.

VII. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Discuss how Renaissance, Reformation and Geographical discoveries heralded the modern age?
Answer:
(a) Renaissance:

  1. The Italian city-states were centres of cultural activities since the fourteenth century. With the coming of the scholars and artists from Constantinople there was a surge of enthusiasm and interest in studying classical literature and art of Greeks and Romans in the Italian city states.
  2. The study of humanities became popular. Petrarch, Father of Humanism, Erasmus, the Prince among Humanists and many others highlighted the principle of Humanism.
  3. Renaissance paintings and sculptures were realistic and naturalistic.
  4. The advances in science were inspired by Ptolemy, Archimedes, Euclid and others. The curiosity kindled by the renaissance played a decisive role in the discovery of new land routes and remapping of the world.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(b) Reformation:

  1. The critical thinking and inquisitive spirit of Renaissance humanism helped people question about the malpractices of the Catholic Church.
  2. Martin Luther played a major role by introducing his her famous Ninety Five Theses.
  3. He opposed the corruption of the Church, finally his reformation made him take a break from the Catholic Church and establish Protestant Church leading to Protestant
  4. The Protestant Reformation posed a threat to the Catholic Church. This made the Church start a Counter Reformation.

(c) Geographical discoveries:

  1. As a result of the discovery of new lands and new sea routes, the economic centre of Europe shifted from the Italian city states to Spain and Portugal.
  2. Spanish discovery of the New World led to the conquest of Mexico and South America.
  3. Many items were exchanged between America and Europe, but the deadly diseases led to the extinction of the natives in most parts of the America.
  4. The mass extinction of the natives led to the import of slaves from Africa.
  5. The Trans-Atlantic trade flourished.
  6. The chief features of commercial revolution were the emergence of banking, joint-stock companies and growth of trade.

Question 2.
Examine the outcome of the geographical discoveries.
Answer:

  1. The geographical discoveries transformed the European understanding of the world.
  2. As a result of the discovery of new lands and new sea routes, the economic centre of Europe shifted from the Italian city states to Spain and Portugal.
  3. Both Spain and Portugal established colonies that led to their economic prosperity.
  4. Spanish discovery of the New World led to the conquest of Mexico and South America.
  5. Plants such as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, pineapple, beans and cocoa, and animals such as turkey and guinea pigs, were transported from America into Europe.
  6. From Europe, sugarcane, wheat, rice, horses, cattle, sheep and goats were sent to America.
  7. But the deadly diseases affected the natives of America annihilating them totally.
  8. This resulted in slave trade and Africa started having strong slave market.
  9. The triangular trade flourished.
  10. Geographical discoveries led to commercial revolution which resulted in the emergence of Banking, joint-stock companies and growth of trade.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Activities for students:

Question 1.
In an outline map of World, mark, the routes of
(a) Bartholomew Diaz
(b) Vasco-da-Gama
(c) Columbus
(d) Magellan
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 2.
Collect pictures of European explorers.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Assignments:

Question 1.
Write a brief biography of Martin Luther.
Answer:

(10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety- five Theses of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Luther taught that salvation and, consequently, eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God’s grace through the believer’s faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin. His theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge from God.

Those who identify with Luther’s wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.

His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular (instead of Latin) made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. His hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry.

In two of his later works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews. His rhetoric was not alone directed at Jews, but also towards Roman Catholics (whom Protestants labeled “Papists”), Anabaptists, and non-trinitarian Christians.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Martin Luther died in 1546, with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective. On his deathbed, Luther was asked: “Are you ready to die trusting in your Lord Jesus Christ and to confess the doctrine which you have taught in his name?” He answered “Yes”, before taking his final breath.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science The Beginning of the Modern Age Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Canzoniere was written by _________
(a) Petrarch
(b) Thomas
(c) Erasmus
(d) Machiavelli
Answer:
(a) Petrarch

Question 2.
Decline of ______ helped ot move towards urbanisation.
(a) Trade
(b) Feudalism
(c) Freedom
(d) Population
Answer:
(b) Feudalism

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 3.
Manuel Chrysoloras was a scholar.
(a) Roman
(b) Italian
(c) Greek
(d) British
Answer:
(c) Greek

Question 4.
The author of Don Quixote, Cervantes belonged to
(a) Persia
(b) Italy
(c) Spain
(d) Portugal
Answer:
(c) Spain

Question 5.
A mathematical model of revolution of the earth was presented by _____
(a) Galileo
(b) Copernicus
(c) Ptolemy
(d) Euclid
Answer:
(b) Copernicus

Question 6.
Johann Tetzel was a ______
(a) Noble
(b) Church official
(c) leader
(d) Poet
Answer:
(b) Church official

Question 7.
The doctrine “justification by faith” was put forward by __________
(a) Thomas More
(b) Frederick
(c) Johann Tetzel
(d) Martin Luther
Answer:
(d) Martin Luther

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 8.
Zwingli worked from __________
(a) Zurich
(b) Genoa
(c) Rome
(d) Spain
Answer:
(a) Zurich

Question 9.
The name Cape of Good Hope was given by __________
(a) Bartholomew Diaz
(b) King John II
(c) Henry the Navigator
(d) Vasco da gama
Answer:
(b) King John II

Question 10.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain supported _________
(a) Amerigo Vespucci
(b) Henry
(c) Columbus
(d) Ptolemy
Answer:
(b) Henry

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. The Portuguese claimed the territories discovered by ______
  2. Portuguese navy defeated the king ______ of Calicut.
  3. Philippines was named after ______ the Prince Philip.
  4. The introduction of Sugarcane led to the establishment of Sugarcane plantation in _______ islands.
  5. Mercantilism refers to ______ System
  6. The English East India Company had monopoly trade in _____
  7. Florence, Milan, Venice, and Rome profited immensely from the ______ trade
  8. Machiavelli’s ‘The Prince’ was a ____ treatise
  9. Utopia was written by ______
  10.  The office of the Pope was known as _____
  11. The supreme head of the Anglican Church was _____
  12. Society of Jesus was founded by _______
  13. Henry the Navigator of Portugal laid the foundation for ______
  14. Ptolemy’s Geography was brought from the _________ Empire.
  15. The discovery and colonization of America increased the _________ trade.

Answer:

  1. Columbus
  2. Zamorin
  3. Spanish
  4. Caribbean
  5. econimic
  6. India
  7. Medirerranean
  8. political
  9. Thomas More
  10. Papacy
  11. King Henary VIII
  12. St. Ignatius Loyola
  13. long distance
  14. Byzantine
  15. Slave

III. Find out the correct statement:

Question 1.
(a) Prince Henry’s Navigation school heralded the dawn of the modern era.
(b) The modern Era witnessed scientific progress.
(c) The Roman Church became very strong in the modern Era
(d) Feudalism encouraged urbanisation.
Answer:
(a) and (b) are correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 2.
(a) The invention of press suppressed the growth of Science.
(b) The idea of humanism was first expressed in literature.
(c) Renaissance paintings were unrealistic and two dimensional.
(d) Renaissance supported the corruption and worldly practices of the Church
Answer:
(b) is correct

Question 3.
(a) Inquisition was an institution of the Protestant Church.
(b) Calvin of Geneva followed Martin Luther.
(c) The travel accounts of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta kindled the curiosity to explore.
(d) The sailors of Prince Henry explored the east coast Africa.
Answer:
(b) and (c) are correct

Question 4.
(a) A German cartographer named the New W orld after Amerigo Vespucci.
(b) Cochin was the headquarters of the Portugal empire in the East.
(c) Since the sea was calm it was named as Pacific Ocean by Columbus.
(d) Maize was introduced into Europe from America.
Answer:
(a) and (d) are correct

IV. Match the following

  1. Vellum – (a) A ceremony in Christianity
  2. Mass – (b) Pepper
  3. Malabor – (c) Slave trade
  4. Gambia – (d) Reformation
  5. Erasmus – (e) Animal skin

Answer:

  1. – (e)
  2. – (a)
  3. – (b)
  4. – (c)
  5. – (d)

V. Answer the following questions briefly:

Question 1.
What about the origin of the word Renaissance?
Answer:

  1. The origin of the word renaissance is from the Italian word renascita meaning rebirth.
  2. It is called renaissance because there was a rebirth or revival of classical Greek and Latin literature.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 2.
What subject were taught in the Italian universities?
Answer:

  1. Italian universities taught humanities namely language, grammar, rhetoric, history and ethics which prepared the students for public life, commerce and administration.
  2. The study of humanities was so popular in the Italian Universities that Students from all over the world flocked there.

Question 3.
Explain the term Inquisition.
Answer:

  1. Inquisition was an institution of the Catholic Church to deal with heresies beliefs in opposition to the Catholic faith.
  2. Those found guilty and who recanted were awarded milder punishments and imprisonment.
  3. Those who refused to recant were burnt at the stake.
  4. The most infamous inquisition was the Spanish Inquisition.

Question 4.
Write about Zwingli and Calvin.
Answer:

  1. Zwingli of Switzerland and John Calvin of Geneva followed Martin Luther.
  2. Zwingli worked from Zurich and was against all forms of rituals.
  3. John Calvin also opposed all forms of display of wealth.
  4. Calvin codified his views in his book Institutes of Christian Religion.
  5. He believed that Church should be independent of political control on religious matters.
  6. Calvinism became more popular.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

Question 5.
Write a note on

  1. Lopo Gonzalves
  2. Bartholomew Diaz.

Answer:

  1. Lopo Gonzalves: Lopo Gonzalves was the first sailor to cross the equator. Till then sailors did not dare to venture beyond, as they harboured fears about boiling waters and sea monsters.
  2. Bartholomew Diaz: ventured further down the African coast reaching cape point or the southern tip of Africa in 1487 A.D. He named it the Cape of Storms as he encountered fierce storms there. King John II of Portugal renamed it as Cape of Good Hope as it provided hope to reach India by sea.

Question 6.
Bring out the main features of India at the dawn of Modern Age in Europe.
Answer:

  1. The Mughal rule started in 1526 A.D.
  2. Vijayanagar state, founded in 1336, rose to a great power under Krishnadeva Raya.
  3. Portuguese established their empire in the East with headquarters at Goa.
  4. In Tamilnadu, in Madurai, Nayak rule began dividing the Pandya kingdom into seventy two palayams.
  5. The arrival of Jesuit Missions and the work of St. Francis Xavier, as a member of Society of Jesus, led to conversion of fishing community to Christianity (Catholicism) in Thoothukudi region.

VI. Answer all questions given under the heading

Question 1.
Growth of trade and Rise of Towns.
(a) Where did the process urbanisation start first in Europe?
Answer:
This process of urbanisation started first in Italy because of its prosperous Mediterranean trade.

(b) What did the Arabs bring?
Answer:
The Arabs brought spices from the east and then transported them by land to the ports of the Mediterranean region.

(c) Name the city states which profited due to this trade.
Answer:
Italian city-states such as Venice and Genoa profited immensely from this trade.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(d) What were the new ideas born in this Context?
Answer:
In this context, new ideas leading to the Renaissance, Reformation and Exploration through sea voyages were bom.

Question 2.
Invention of the Printing Press
(a) How were the manuscripts written earlier?
Answer:
Earlier, manuscripts were written by hand on animal skin called vellum. Only the privileged few could access them.

(b) Who, when, where did invent the printing press?
Answer:
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany in the middle of the fifteenth century.

(c) How was this invention useful?
Answer:
The printing press enabled the production of multiple copies of a manuscript and their spread all over Western Europe.

(d) Apart from spreading knowledge, what was promoted by this invention?
Answer:
The invention not only spread knowledge widely, but also promoted critical thinking.

Question 3.
Fall of Constantinople.
(a) Who captured Constantinople?
Answer:
In 1453 A.D. Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was captured by the Ottoman Turks.

(b) What was the result?
Answer:
This acted as a catalyst for the birth of Renaissance. It also led to the discovery of new land routes.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(c) Who moved towards the Italian City states?
Answer:
Following the Turkish occupation, a number of scholars, artists and artisans left Constantinople moving towards the Italian city states.

(d) What was promoted by them?
Answer:
Under Renaissance artists portrayed natural landscapes, human anatomy, emotions and ideas.

Question 4.
Impact on Art under Renaissance:
(a) What was portrayed under Rwnaissance
Answer:
Under Renaissance artists portrayed natural landscapes, human anatomy, emotioins and ideas

(b) In the field of art give the contribution of Leonardo da Vinci.
Answer:
Leonardo da Vinci was versatile genius. He was a painter, sculptor, architect, military engineer, anatomist, and poet. His paintings of Mona Lisa, the Last Supper and The Virgin on the Rocks are illustrious examples of his talent.

(c) Contribution of Michelangelo.
Answer:
Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, architect and poet. His marble sculpture of David depicts the youthful strength and energy of the giant slayer. He is also famous for his paintings in the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.

(d) Contribution of Raphael.
Answer:
Raphael painted beautiful Madonnas (Virgin and the Child). His painting of the School of Athens reveals the ideological debate of his times, namely, the conflict between spiritualism and humanism.

Question 5.
Science during Renaissance:
(a) Who inspired the advances in Science?
Answer:
The advances in science were inspired by Ptolemy, Archimedes, Euclid and others.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(b) What was proved by Copernicus?
Answer:
Copernicus proved that earth revolved around the sun through a mathematical model.

(c) What was the contribution of Galileo?
Answer:
Galileo proved further astronomical proof with the aid of the telescope he invented.

(d) What role was played by the Church in the field of science?
Answer:
The Church continued to prevent the growth of science as it undermined its importance.

Question 6.
Martin Luther:
(a) Who was Martin Luther?
Answer:
Martin Luther, a monk of the Augustinian Order and a Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg. He was a devout Christian and a scrupulous follower of the Catholic faith.

(b) Why did Pope Leo X excommunicate him?
Answer:
Luther wrote a pamphlet against the sale of indulgences, sale of offices and other corrupt practices. He listed out ninety five points and pasted them on the Church door. When he refused to withdraw his criticisms, Pope Leo X issued a Papal Bull excommunicating him.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(c) Who supported Luther’s cause?
Answer:
Not only many princes, but the peasants also supported Luther’s cause.

(d) What was marked by Luther’s reformation?
Answer:
Luther’s reformation marked the first successful break from the Church and establishment of the Protestant Church.

Question 7.
Vasco da Gama:
(a) When did Vasco da Gama sailed from Portugal?
Answer:
In 1497 A.D. Vasco da Gama sailed from Portugal.

(b) Where did he reach in Africa?
Answer:
He reached the Cape of Good Hope in Africa.

(c) Where did he reach on the malabar Coast
Answer:
1498 A.D. he reached Calicut on the Malabar Coast.

(d) Why was Vasco da Gama astounded?
Answer:
At Calicut, Vasco da Gama was astounded to find pepper and other spices, a precious commodity in Portugal, available at low prices.

Question 8.
Impact of Geographical Discoveries:
(a) What was the impact of the discovery of new lands and new sea routes?
Answer:
As a result of the discovery of new lands and new sea routes, the economic centre of Europe shifted from the Italian city states to Spain and Portugal leading to their economic prosperity.

(b) What were transported from America?
Answer:
Plants such as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, pineapple, beans and cocoa, and animals such as turkey and guinea pigs, were transported from America and introduced in Europe.

(c) What were sent from Europe?
Answer:
From, Europe, sugarcane, wheat, rice, horses, cattle, sheep and goats were sent to America.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age

(d) Why were slaves imported from Africa?
Answer:
The mass extinction of the native population led to the import of slaves from Africa. Gambia, £ _ ‘ Senegal, Goree, El Mina and Congo became important centres of slave trade in Africa.

VII. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Explain the term Renaissance.
Answer:

  1. The Italian city-states were centres of cultural activities since the fourteenth century.
  2. With the coming of the scholars and artists from Constantinople, there was a surge of enthusiasm and interest in studying classical literature and art of Greeks and Romans.
  3. This creative upsurge was reflected in their writings, art, architecture and music.
  4. This cultural florescence is known as the renaissance.
  5. The origin of the word renaissance is from the Italian word ‘renascita’ meaning rebirth.
  6. It is called renaissance because there was a rebirth or revival of classical Greek and Latin literature.
  7. Many scholars in Italy went in search of manuscripts of classical literature.
  8. Greek scholar Manuel Chrysoloras who taught Greek classics in Italy, Guarino and
    Giovanni Aurispa, to name just a few, visited Constantinople several times to collect Greek manuscripts.
  9. Later they printed what they collected.

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