Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Pdf Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

11th Bio Botany Guide Mineral Nutrition Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Part -I

Question 1.
Identify correct match.
1. Die back disease of citrus -(i) Mo
2. Whip tail disease – (ii) Zn
3. Brown heart of turnip -(iii) Cu
4. Little leaf -(iv) B
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 1
Answer:
b) 1 (iii) 2 (i) 3 (iv) 4 (ii)

Question 2.
If a plant is provided with all mineral nutrients but, Mn concentration is increased, what will be the deficiency?
a) Mn prevent the uptake of Fe, Mg but not Ca
b) Mn increase the uptake of Fe, Mg and Ca
c) Only increase the uptake of Ca
d) Prevent the uptake Fe, Mg, and Ca
Answer:
a) Mn prevent the uptake of Fe, Mg but not Ca

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 3.
The element which is not remobilized?
a) Phosphorous
b) Potassium
c) Calcium
d) Sulphur
Answer:
c) Calcium

Question 4.
Match the correct combination.

Minerals Role
A Molybdenum 1. Chlorophyll
B Zinc 2. Methionine
C Magnesium 3. Auxin
D Sulphur 4. Nitrogenase

a) A-1 B-3 C-4 D-2
b) A-2 B-1 C-3 D-4
c) A-4 B-3 C-1 D-2
d) A-4 B-2 C-1 D-3
Answer:
c) A-4 B-2 C-1 D-3

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 5.
Identify the correct statement.
i) Sulphur is essential for amino acids Cystine and Methionine
ii) Low level of N,K,S and Mo affect the cell division.
iii) Non – leguminous plant Alnus which contain bacterium Frankia
iv) Denitrification carried out by Nitrosomonas and, Nitrobacter.
a) I, II are correct
b) I, II, III are correct
c) I only correct d) all are correct
Answer:
b) l, II, III are correct

Question 6.
The nitrogen is present in the atmosphere in huge amount but higher plants fail to utilize it. Why?
Answer:
1. Plants absorb minerals from the soil along with water with the help of Roots. Minerals are absorbed as salts.
2. Nitrogen is present in large quantities in the atmosphere in a gaseous from, rhe gaseous nitrogen must be fixed in the form of Nitrate salts in the soil to facilitate absorption by plant roots.
3. Nitrogen fixation can occur 2 ways by

  1. Non – Biological means (Industrial process or by lighting)
  2. Biological means (Bacteria / Cyanobacteria Fungi)
    Therefore higher plants con not utilize the atmospheric Nitrogen.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 7.
Why is that in certain plants, deficiency symptoms appear first in younger parts of the plants while in others, they do so in mature organs?
Answer:
When deficiency symptoms appear first, we can notice the differences in old and younger leaves. It is mainly due to mobility’ of minerals. Based on this, they are classified into
1. Actively mobile minerals and
2. Relatively immobile minerals
a) Actively mobile minerals: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Sodium, Zinc and Molybdenum. Deficiency symptoms first appear on old and senescent leaves due to active movement of minerals to younger leaves, than the older leaves.
b) Relatively immobile minerals: Calcium, Sulphur, Iron, Boron and Copper. Here, deficiency symptoms first appear on young leaves due to the immobile nature of minerals.

Question 8.
Plant A in a nutrient medium shows whiptail disease. Plant B in a nutrient medium shows a little leaf disease. Identify mineral deficiency of plant A and B?
Answer:

  • Plant A in nutrient medium shows whiptail disease: Mineral deficiency is due to Molybdenum.
  • Plant B in a nutrient medium shows little leaf disease: Mineral deficiency is due to Zinc.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 9.
Write the role of nitrogenase enzyme in nitrogen fixation?
Answer:
Nitrogen fixation is the first step in Nitrogen cycle, during which gaseous nitrogen from the atmosphere is fixed. It required nitrogenase enzyme complex nitrogenase is active only in anaerobic condition. To create this anaerobic condition, a pigment known as leghaemoglobin is synthesized in the nodules which acts as oxygen scavenger and removes oxygen.

Question 10.
Explain the insectivorous mode of nutrition in angiosperms?
Answer:
Plants which are growing in nitrogen deficient areas develop insectivorous habit to resolve nitrogen deificiency.
a. Nepenthes (Pitcher plant): Pitcher is a modified leaft and contains digestive enzymes. Rim of the pitcher is provided with nectar glands and acts as an attractive lid. When insect is trapped, proteolytic enzymes will digest the insect.
b. Drosera (Sundew): It consists of long club shaped tentacles which secrete sticky digestive fluid which looks like a sundew.
c. Utricularia (Bladder wort): Submerged plant in which leaf is modified into a bladder to collect insect in water.
d. Dionaea (Venus fly trap): Leaf of this plant modified into a colourful trap. Two folds of lamina consist of sensitive trigger hairs and when insects touch the hairs it will close.

INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS

1. Nepenthes (Pitcher Plant)
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 2
2. Drosera (Sundew)
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 3

3. Dlonaca (Venus Fly tray)
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 4

PART – II

11th Bio Botany Guide Mineral Nutrition Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the Correct Answers

Question 1.
The criteria required for essential minerals was given by
a) Amon and stout
b) Julius von Sachs
c) Liebig
d) Van Helmont
Answer:
a) Arnon and Stout

Question 2.
The minerals placed under the list of unclassified minerals are
a) Carbon. Hydrogen, & Oxygen
b) Sodium. Silicon. Cobalt and selenium
c) Copper, Iron, Cadmium, and selenium
d) Magnesium, Sulphur, & Manganese
Answer:
b) Sodium, Silicon, Cobalt, and Selenium

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 3.
Relatively immobile minerals are
a) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium
b) Calcium. Potassium, Phosphorus, Molybdenum
c) Calcium, Sulphur, Iron, Boron, Copper
d) Carbon, Hydrogen. Oxygen and Sulphur
Answer:
c) Calcium, Sulphur, Iron, Boron, Copper

Question 4.
Skeletal elements are
a) Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
b) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Calcium
c) Potassium, Magnesium, and Sulphur
d) Nitrogen, Sulphur and Phosphorus
Answer:
a) Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 5.
Law of minium was proposed by
a) Van Helmont
b) Julius von Sachs
c) Liebig
d) Wamburg
Answer:
c) Liebig

Question 6.
Which chelating agent found in soil are produced by bacteria?
a) Siderophores
b) EDTA
c) Auxin
d) Gibberellin
Answer:
a) Siderophores

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 7.
The constituent of Chlorophyll is
a) Calcium
b) Manganes
c) Iron
d) Magnesium
Answer:
d) Magnesium

Question 8.
Minerals that play important role for activation of enzymes involved in Respiration are
a) Molybdenum and Boron
b) Boron and Silicon
c) Calcium and Magnesium
d) Magnesium and Manganese
Answer:
d) Magnesium and Manganese

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 9.
Essential component of aminoacids like Cystine, Cysteine and Melhionine is
a) Potassium
b) Magnesium
c) Sulphur
d) Calcium
Answer:
c) Sulphur

Question 10.
Micronutrient essential for synthesis of Indole Acetic acid and several other enzymes is
a) Copper
b) Iron
c) Zinc
d) Boron
Answer:
c) Zinc

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 11.
Delay in flowering is due to the deficiency of
a) N, S, Mo
b) Ca, Mg, Mn
c) C, H, O
d) N,P,K
Answer:
a) N,S,Mo

Question 12.
Kheria disease of Rice and Internal cork of Apple are caused by the deficiency of
a) Calcium and Maganese
b) Zinc and Boron
c) Copper and Manganese
d) Boron and Nickel
Answer:
b) Zinc and Boron

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 13.
Cuscuta and Rafflesia are respectively known as
a) Total root parasite, Total stem parasite
b) Partial stem parasite, Partial root parasite
c) Total stem parasite, Total root parasite
d) Total saprophyte, Partial saprophyte
Answer:
c) Total stem parasite, Total root parasite

Question 14.
The enzyme that is a constituent of urease and dehydrogenase are
a) Molybdenum
b) Boron
c) Nickel
d) Zinc
Answer:
c) Nickel

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 15.
A membrane bound bacterium formed inside the nodule is called
a) Bacteriod
b) Plasmid
c) Nucleoid
d) Noduloid
Answer :
a) Bacteriod

Question 16.
Complete fertilisers include
a) N, P and K
b) Ca, Mg and K
c) N, Ca and Mg
d) None of these
Answer:
a) N, P and K

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 17.
Plants need one of the following minerals for ATP and meristematic tissue formation
a) K, N
b) N, Cu
c) N, Ca
d) P, N
Answer:
d) P, N

Question 18.
Toxicity of Mn in plant of may cause deficiency …………………………..
a) Fe and Mg
b) S, P and K
c) Ca, CI and Mg
d) N, P and Mn
Answer:
a) Fe and Mg

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 19.
Mo is a part of enzyme ……………..
a) Reverse transcriptase
b) Restriction endonuclease
c) Hexokinase
d) Nitrogenase
Answer:
d) Nitrogenase

Question 20.
Which of the bacterium causes denitrification?
a) Azotobacter
b) Nitrobacter
c) Nitrosomonas
d) Pseudomonas
Answer:
d) Pseudomonas

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 21.
Beside paddy fields, cyanobacteria are also found inside the vegetative parts of
a) Psiloturn
b) Pinus
c) Cycas
d) Equiseturn
Answer:
c) Cycas

Question 22.
The first stable product of fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in leguminous plant is
a) No2
b) No3
c) Ammonia
d) Glutamate
Answer:
c) Ammonia

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 23.
Element involved in Nitrogen fixation is
a) Zinc
b) Copper
c) iron
d) Chlorine
Answer:
c) Iron

Question 24.
Leg haemoglobin is a
a) Pigment acting as oxygen scavenger in legumes
b) Hormone fixing in Nitrogen
c) Pigment present in flower petals
d) Oxygen scavenger in BaA
Answer:
a) Pigment acting as oxygen scavenger in legumes

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 25.
Plants that can grow in marshy places where there is scarcity of Nitrogen are
a) Halophytes
b) Psammophytes
c) Bryophytes
d) insectivorous plants
Answer:
d) Insectivorous plants

Question 26.
Plants used as cleaning agents in FTW (ie) Floating treatment wetlands are
a) Eichhomia Pistia, Nelumbium & Typha
b) Limnophila lotus, Potomogeton & Pistia
c) Withania Citronella, Tulsi, Vetivers
d) Bamboo, Hydrilla, Vallisneria & Aloe vera
Answer:
c) Withania Citronella, Tulsi, Vetivers

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 27.
Internal cork of apple and Exanthema in citrus and whiptail disease of cauliflower are produced by the deficiency of
1. Copper,
2. Zinc,
3. Boron
4. Molybdenum
a) 2,3, 1
b) 2, 3, 4
c) 4, 3, 1
d) 3, 1,4
Answer:
d) 3,1,4

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 28.
Necrosis means
a) Discolouration of leaf
b) Stunted growth
c) Death of the tissue
d) Death of the root
Answer:
c) Death of the tissue

Question 29.
The one doesn’t fix Nitrogen is ………………………………..
a) Azatobacter
b) Anbaena
c) Spirogyra
d) Nostoc
Answer:
c) Spirogyra

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 30.
Denitrification process deplete important nutrients from soil. It also cause ………………………
a) Acidification of soil
b) Alkalification of soil
c) Neutralization of soil
d) Ammoniafication of soil
Answer:
a) Acidification of soil

Question 31.
Availability of Nitrogenase enzyme depend on
a) Non avoulability of ATP
b) Availability of Nitric acid
c) Availability of ATP
d) Non availability of Nitric acid
Answer:
c) Availability of ATP

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 32.
Obligate or Total parasites are
a) Santalum albumn and orabanche
b) Vanda and Venilla
c) Cuscuta and Rafflesia
d) Viscum and Loranthus
Answer:
c) Cuscuta and Rafflesia

Question 33.
Plants are more adapted to absorb …………… of the following.
a) Nitrate
b) Nitrite
c) Ammonia
d) Nitrogen
Answer:
a) Nitrate

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 34.
Major role of minor elements inside living organism is to act as
a) Binder of cell structure
b) Constituent of hormone
c) Building blocks of important amino acids
d) Co factors of enzymes
Answer:
d) Co factors of enzymes

Question 35.
Deficiency symptoms of an element tend to appear first in young leaves due to its relative immobility. Which one of the following elemental deficiency would show such symptom
a) Sulphur
b) Magnesium
c) Nitrogen
d) Potassium
Answer:
a) Sulphur

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 36.
Free living aerobic nitrogen fixing bacterium is
a) Azotobacter, Beijemeckia and Derxia
b) Nostoc, Anabaena, and Oscullatoria
c) Saccharomyces, Pullularia, Pseudomonas
d) Chlorobium and Rhodospirillum
Answer:
a) Azotobacter, Beijerneckia and Derxia

Question 37.
Leguminous plants does not include
a) Black gram
b) Bengal gram
c) Pongamia
d) Casuarina
Answer:
d) Casuarina

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 38.
Cyanobacteria does not include
a) Nostoc
b) Anabaena
c) Clostridium
d) Oscillatoria
Answer:
c) Clostridium

II. Match The Following & Find Out The Correct Option

Question 39.
Cuscuta – A) Giant flower
Dianaea – B) Pitcher plant
Rafflesia – C) Dodder
Utricularia – D) Venus fly trap
Nepenthus – E) Bladder wort
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 5
Answer:
b) C-D-A-E-B

Question 40.

Column I Column II
I) 94% of dry weight of plant comprises A) K
II) Maintain turgid and osmotic Potential of cell B) Mn
III) Mineral that play important role in photosynthesis of water C) Mg
IV) Activator of enzymes RUBP and PEP carboxylase D) C,H,O

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 6
Answer:
b) D-A-B-C

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 41.

Column I Column II
I) Potassium A) Mitotic cell division & spindle fomiation
II) Calcium B) Constituent of vitamins Biotin and Thiamine
III) Sulphur C) Essential component of amino acids Nucleic acids
IV) Nitrogen D) Maintain opening and closing of Stomata

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 7
Answer:
a) D-A-B-C

Question 42.
I) Criteria required for essential minerals was given by – A) Julius von Sachs
II) Word – Hydroponics Was coined by – B)SoiferHillel& David Durger
III) Hydroponics was developed by – C)Amon& Stout
IV) Aeroponics was developed by – D) William Frederick Goerick
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 8
Answer:
c) C -D-A-B

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

III. Find Out The Incorrect Statement With Reference To Potassium

Question 43.
a. It is essential for opening & closing of stomata
b. It is an essential component of vitamins, hormones, alkaloids and chlorophyll
c. It maintains osmotic potential of the cell
d. It maintain anion, cation balance by ion exchange.
Answer:
b. It is an essential component of vitamins, hormones, alkaloids and chlorophyll

Question 44.
a. Magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll
b. Iron is essential for the formation of chlorophyll
c. Phosphorus is a component of ATP
d. Copper is essential for the synthesis of IAA
Answer:
d. Copper is essential for the synthesis of IAA

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 45.
Find out wrong choice with reference to symbiotic mode of Nutrition
a. Lichens
b. Mycorrhizae
c. Coralloid roots of cycas
d. Viscum
Answer:
d. Viscum

Question 46.
The deficiency of which two exhibit competitive behaviour and the deficiencey of the two showing same symptoms.
(I) Iron
(II) Magnesium
(III) Calcium
(IV) Manganese
a) I & II
b) II & III
c) III & IV
d) I & IV
Answer:
d. I & IV

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 47.
Statement
(I) Alnus and Casuarina are nonlegume nitrogen fixers containing bacterium Frankia
(II) Nostoc and Anabaena are present in the corolloid roots of cycas.
a) Both (I) & (IT) are correct
b) (I) is correct (II) is wrong
c) (I) is wrong (II) is correct
d) Both (I) & (II) are wrong
Answer:
a) Both (I) & (II) are correct

Question 48.
Statement
(I) Dionaea is a submerged hydrophyte in which leaf is modified into a bladder to trap insects
(II) Loranthus is a partial stem parasite, absorb water and minerals from the xylem of the host
a) Both (I) & (II) are correct
b) (I) is correct (II) is wrong
c) (I) is wrong (II) is correct
d) Both (I) & (II) are wrong
Answer:
c) (I) is wrong (II) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Assertion ‘A’ & Reason ‘R’
a) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are True and ‘R’ is the correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R are True, but R is not the correct explanation of A
c) A is True but ‘R’ is False
d) A& Rare False

Question 49.
Assertion: A Manganese is a Micro element
Reason: R Micro elements are required in traces only, less than 1 mg/gm of dry matter
Answer:
a) Both A and R are True and R is the correct explanation of A

Question 50.
Assertion: Calcium is a constituent of cell wall
Reason: R Calcium is required in mitotic division.
Answer:
b) A and R are True but ‘R’ is not the correct explanation of A

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 51.
Assertion: A Deficiency of sulphur causes chlorosis in plants
Reason: R Sulphur is a constituent of chlorophyll
Answer:
c) A is True but ‘R’ is false

Question 52.
Assertion: A Plants absorb Nitrogen in the form of Nitrate only
Reason: R Nitrogen is the most critical element
Answer:
d) Both A and R are false

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 53.
Assertion: A Mineral salt absorption is an active process.
Reason: R Metabolic energy is not used in active absorption.
Answer:
c) A is true but ‘R’ is false

2 Mark Questions

IV.

Question 1.
What are the characteristics of Essential minerals?
Answer:

  • Necessary for growth and development
  • Should have direct role in the metabolism
  • Cannot be replaced by other elements
  • Deficiency makes the plant impossible to complete vegetative & reproductive phase

Question 2.
Is there any mne monic for remembering essential minerals?
Answer:
CHOPKNs Cafe Mg B Mn Cu Zn Mo Cl (C) HOPKINS (name) Cafe managed by Mine CUZINS, Mo tnd Claude”.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 3.
What is a chelating agent?
Answer:
A chelating agent is a chemical compound that reacts with metal ions (Iron) to from stable water soluble metal Complexes – (eg. Iron)
Eg. EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid) Siderophores (Biological chelating agent, produced by)bacteria.

Question 4.
What are the minerls classifed as unclassified minerals and why?
Answer:
5ome minerals Such as Sodium, Silicon, Cobalt and Selenium some minerals are not included in the list ol essential nuitrients by they play some specific roles.
Eg. Silicon essential for pest resistance, prevent water lodging, aids in cell wall formation in Equisetaceae, Cyperaceae & Gramineae

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 5.
What is the speciality of Monotropa and Neottia
Answer:

  • These are Angiosperms – They donot have green leaves to prepare food known as saprophytes
  • Phey absorb nuitrients from humus rich soil in thick forests through mycorrhizal association,
  • They have saprophytic mode of nuitrition.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Hydroponics & Aeroponics
Answer:

  • Hydroponics
    Growing plants in nutrient solution with roots immerse in it and air is supplied with the help of
    tube.
  • Hydroponics
    It Is a system where roots suspended in air and nuitrients solution in a tank is sprayed over the roots by motor driven rotor – in the form of mist.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 7.
Classify Essential elements based on diverse functions.
Answer:
1.Structural components: Eg. C, H, O & N
2. Activators or Inhibitors of Enzyme Function. Eg. Mg++, P, Zn Ni
3.Regulators of osmotic potential of cell Eg. K+, Na+ and CT
4.Energy Components Eg. Mg++ and P.

Question 8.
What are called critical elements & complete fertilizers?
Answer:
Macro elements which commonly remain deficient in the soil are called Critical elements, (ie) N.P.K.
The fertilizer which contain critical elements are called complete fertilizer. They are expressed in the ratio.
15: 15: 15(N:P: K)

Question 9.
Why is Iron kept between Macro and Micro nuitrients?
Answer:
Iron is required lesser than macro nuitrients and larger than the micronuitrient so it can be placed in any one of the two groups.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 9

Question 10.
What are the main functions of chlorine? and its deficiency symptoms.
Answer:

  • It is involved in Anion – Cation balance, cell division, photolysis of water.
  • It is absorbed as Cl ions
  • Deficiency disease – Leaf tip wilting.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 11.
List two purpose for which you think Magnesium is required essentially to the plants.
Answer:
(I) Synthesis of Chlorophyll
(II) Formation of nodules in legumes

Question 12.
State the law of minimum.
Answer:
Lie big – formulated this law, which states that productivity of soil depends on amount of essential elements
present in minimum quantity.

Question 13.
What is meant by Toxicity of Minerals
Answer:
If mineral nuitrients lesser than critical concentration cause deficiency, where as when there is increase in
mineral nuitrients more than normal concentration cause Toxicity Toxicity ¡s that particular concentration at which 10% of the dry weight of tissue is reduced.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 14.
Give examples for Nitrogen Fixation with out nodulation.
Answer:

Plants Prokaryotes
1. Lichens Anabaena & Nostoc
2.  Anthoceros Nostoc
3.  Azolla Anabaena azollae
4. Cycas Anabaena & Nostoc

Question 15.
Give examples for Non – symbiotic Nitrogen fixation by bacteria and Fungi.
Answer:

Aerobic Azotobacter and Dervia
Anaerobic Closthdium
Photosynthetic Chiorobiuni & Rhodospirillum
Chemosynthetic Disulfo – vibrio
Freeliving Fungi Yeast & Pullularia
Cyanobacteria Ñostoc, Anabaen

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 16.
What is Calmodulin?
Answer:

  • Calmodulin is a Ca++ modulating protein in Eukaryotic cells.
  • It is a heat stable protein involved in find metabolic regulation.

Question 17.
What are the negative effects of denitrification.
Answer:

  • Nitrate in the soil are converted back to atmospheric nitrogen.
  • Denitrification process deplete important nuitrients from the soil.
  • It also causes acidification of the soil.

Question 18.
Name 2 hormones involved in Nodule formation.
Answer:
During nodule formation in leguminous plants cytokinin from bacteria and Auxin from host (leguminous) plant promotes cell division and leads to nodule formation.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 19.
What is a bacterioid?
Answer:
A membrane bound bacterium that is formed inside the root nodule of a leguminous plant is known as bacteroid

Question 20.
Decreased availability of the element results in early fall of fruits and flowers. Identify the element.
Answer:
Phosphorus, Magnesium and Copper (Any one of these three elements) may cause the above symptoms.

Question 21.
Name any 3 diseases caused by copper deficiency.
Answer:

  1. Die back of Citrus.
  2. Reclamation disease of cereals & legumes.
  3. Exanthema in Citrus.

Question 22.
Notes on unclassified minerals.
Answer:
Required by some plants – for some specific functions, in trace amounts.
Example: Sodium, Silicon, Selenium & Cobalt.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 23.
Explain Nitrate Assimilation.
Answer:
Definaition: The process by which nitrate is reduced to ammonia is called Nitrate assimilation and it occurs during Nitrogen cycle.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 10
Question 24.
Explain Aluminium Toxicity.
Answer:
Aluminium toxicity causes,

  • Precipitation ofNucleic acid
  • Inhibition of ATP ase
  • Inhibition of cell division and binding of Plasma membrane with Calmodulin.

Question 25.
Differentiate between Nitrification & Denitrification
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 11

Question 26.
Organisms like Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus are of great significance in nitrogen cycle. How?
Answer:
These microorganisms carry out denitrification they help to maintain the constant level of nitrogen in the atmosphere.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 27.
What is meant by Symbiotic association give examples?
Answer:
Close relationship between two organism, both being benefitted out of it is known as symbiosis.
Eg. 1. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Nitrosomonas living in the root nodules of leguminous plants.
2. Fungi associated with roots of higher plants is a symbiotic association known as Mycorrhiza

Question 28.
What is the use of FTWS.
Answer:

  • FTWS – means floating treatment wet lands.
  • It works on the principle of hydroponics recently FTWS work on the principle of hydroponics, helping to solve pollution that come up due to Eutrophication.

Question 29.
Notes on Lichens.
Answer:

  • Lichens are pioneer species in xeric succession.
  • Lichens are nothing but symbiotic association of Algae and Fungi partners.
  • Lichens are also indicators of S02 pollution.

Question 30.
Notes on Haustoria.
Answer:
Total parasitic or partial parasites they have some special structures to absorb food or water from the host plant phloem and xylem. These special absorbing structures are known as Haustoria.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 31.
Identify the diagram A.
Answer:
Cycas corolloid roots – have symbiotic association with Nostoc helping to fix nitrogen.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 12

Question 32.
Identify the diagram.
Answer:
> Root nodules of leguminous plant inhabiting Rhizobium fixing nitrogen

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 13

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

3 Mark Questions.

V.

Question 1.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 14
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 15

Question 2.
Answer the following questions with reference to nitrogen?
I) The form in which is absorbed from the soil?
II) In which part of the plant it is required’?
III) Two organic compounds in which it is a component
Answer:
I) It is absorbed in the form of N02, NO3-, and NH4 irons.
II) It is required in the me-is1’matic tissues metabolically active cells.
III) It is a constituent of uc1eic acids, Aminoacids, Vitamins Proteins etc. Thus it is a critically very important mineral.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 3.
Draw a model of Hydroponics.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 16

Question 4.
Explain Manganese toxicity.
Answer:

  • Iron and Manganese exhibit competitive behaviour
  • The deficiency ‘Fe’ and ‘Mn’ show similar symptoms.
  • If I here is iron toxicity created by excess usage of chelated iron in addition with increased acidity of soil. (pH less than 5.8). It will also affect absorption of Manganese.
  • To solve this problem, we should use fertilizer with balance ratio of‘Fe’ and ‘Mn’

Question 5.
Draw the schematic representation of Nitrogenase enzyme function.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 17

Question 6.
Distinguish between leg haemoglobin and Anthocyanin.
Answer:
a) Leg haemoglobin or Legoglobin: is an oxygen carrier found in the nitrogen fixing root nodules of
leguminous plants.
This by oxygen scavenging, lowers oxygen concentration enough to allow nitrogenase to function but also provide Rhizobium (aerobic bacteria) with oxygen for respiration.
b) Anthocyanin:

  • It is purple colour pigment found in some plant parts such as flower, fruits etc.
  • Anthocyanin formation also occurs in plants due to deficiency of minerals such as Magnesium, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulphur.

Question 7.
Nitrogen fixation is shown by Prokaryotes and not by Eukaryotes comment.
Answer:
Nitrogen fixation is the phenomenon that occurs in Prokaryotes but not in Eukaryotes, because the enzymes nitrogenase, which is capable of nitrogen reduction is present exclusively in prokaryotes and such microbes are often called fixers.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 8.
What is meant by crop rotation or why do farmers raise legume crop (pulses) in between 2 successive paddy crops.
Answer:

  • Yes, Repeated Paddy cultivation deplete the soil off nitrogen.
  • So prior to paddy, fanners raise, green gram, black gram, soya beans (leguminous plants)
  • These plants by their symbiotic association with Nitrogen fixing rhizobium enrich the soil with Nitrogen manure.
  • This practice of raising legumes in between paddy crops is known as Crop rotation.

5 Mark Questions

VI.

Question 1.
Classify minerals on the basis of on their function.
a) Structural component – C, H, O & N
b) Enzyme function – Mo, Zn, Mg, &Ni
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 18
C) Osmotic potential – K:
Potassium -(K) – maintain osmotic Potential by 2 steps.

  1. Absorption of water
  2. Movement of stomata & turgidity

d) Energy components:
Mg – in chlorophyll
P- in ATP

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 2.
Tabulate the mode of absorption, function and deficiency symptoms of any 5 microelements.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 19
Question 3.
Explain the following condition in few sentences.
I) Chlorosis II) Interveinal chlorosis III) Necrosis IV) Anthocyanin formation in leaves
V) Little leaf or mottled leaf.
Answer:
I) Chlorosis:
Chlorosis it leads to the following leaves of plants cause by many mineral deficiency.
Eg: N, K, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mo

II) Interveinal chlorosis:

  • It is loss of green colouration in to yellow – in between the areas of veins.
  • It may be due to Iron Magnesium or Manganese deficiency.

III) Necrosis :
Death of plants tissues aspecially leaves by turning into brown or black colour, or tissue due some mineral deficiency or other disease. Eg; Ca, Mg, Cu and K

IV) Anthocyanin formation:
Due to N, P, K, S deficiency the colour of leaves may change from green to purple.

V) Little leaf or mottled leaf – condition :
This symptom occur due to the deficiency of zinc, which in turn is essential for Indole Acetic acid formation.

Question 4.
Why are NPK fertilizers important to plants?
Answer:
Nitrogen: It helps in plant growth and development.

  • It required in large amount
  • It is essential component of Proteins, Amino acids, Nucleic acids, Vitamins, Hormones, Chlorophyll etc.

Phosphorus:
It is an important constituent of Cell membrane, Proteins, Nucleic acids, ATP, NADP etc.

Potassium:

  • It is essential to maintain turgidity and osmotic potential of the cell.
  • Opening and closure of stomata.
  • Phloem translocation.
  • Ion exchange etc.
  • So overall all the three in right proportion is used by farmers for various plants to enhance yield.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 5.
Tabulate the major Essential elements their function & Deficiency symptoms.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 20
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 21

Question 6.
What are the stages of Root nodule formation.
Answer:
1. Attraction:
Legume roots secretes Phenolics to attract Rhizobium.

2. Infection:

  • Rhizobium – reaches rhizosphere
  • Rhizosphere → to root hair.
  • Curling of root hairs.

3. Spreading & multiplication:
Infection thread grows inwards and infected area is separated from normal tissue.
4. Bacteriod formation:
A membrane bound bacterium is formed inside the nodule ……………. called Bacterioid.

5. Nodule formation:

  • Cytokinin from Bacteria.
  • Auxin from legume roots together promote cell division and nodules are formed.

Question 7.
Explain the fate of Ammonia or Assimilation of Ammonia.
Answer:

  • Ammonia ions are quite toxic to plants, and hence cannot accumulate in the plants.
  • It should be converted into Amino acids.

There are 3 methods by which it is done.

  1. Reductive amination:
    In this ammonia reacts with Ketoglutaric acid and form glutamic acid.Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 22

II) Transamination:

  • It involves the transfer of amino group from one amino acid to the ketogroup of another keto acid.
  • Glutamic acid is the main amino acid from which the transfer of NH2 (amino group) takes place and other amino acids are fonned through transamination.
    The enzyme Transaminase + Pyridoxus phosphate (COenz) reactions.
    Example:
    Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 23

III) Catalytic Amination (GS/GOGAT path way)

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 24

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

Question 8.
Explain parasitic mode of Nuitrition.
Answer:
Definition:
Organism deriving their nuitrients from another organism (host and causing damage/disease to the host is known as parasite. Stem parasite Root parasite Stem parasite Root parasite.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition 25
I) Obligate or Total parasite :
Completely depends on host for their survival produce haustoria.

  • Total stem parasite :
    Leafless plant twine around the host. Eg. Cuscuta on Zizipus, citrus etc.
  • Total root parasite :
    Plants do not have stem axis – so grow in the roots of host plants produce haustoria.
    Eg. Rafflesia, Orobanche and Balanophora.

II) Partial parasite:
Plant have chlorophyll on their leaves dependent on water and mineral requirements.

  • Partial stem parasite :
    The plant grow an fig and mango and absorb water and minerals from xylem of host through haustoria.
    Eg. Loranthus.
  • Partial root parasite:
    This plant in its juvenile stages produces haustoria which grow on roots of many forest trees.
    Eg. Sandal wood tree (santalum album)

Question 9.
Describe Saprophytic mode of nuitrition in Angiosperms?
Answer:
Definition:
Derving nuitrients from dead and decaying organic matter is known as saprophytic – nuitrition.
Eg. Bacteria, Fungi Saprophytic Angiosperms:

  • Neottia: (Bird’s nest orchid) Roots of Neottia get associated with the mycorrhizae and absorb nuitrients from the litter in the soil.
  • The plant leaves lack chlorophyll so dependon mycorrhiza to absorb nuitrients from the decomposed litter in the soil.
  • Monotropa: (Indian pipe) It also lack leaves, so absorb nuitrients from the soil through the mycorrhizal association.

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