Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Guide Pdf Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.
Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany
11th Bio Botany Guide Taxonomy and Systematic BotanyText Book Back Questions and Answers
Part – A
Choose the right answer:
Specimen derived from non-original collection serves as the nominclatural type, when original specimen is missing it is known as
Phylogenilic classification is the most favoured classification because it reflects,
a) Comparative anatomy
b) Number of flowers produced
c) Comparative cytology
d) Evolutionary relationships
d) Evolutionary relationships
The taxonomy which involves the similarities and dissimilarities among the immune system of different taxa is termed as
b) Molecular systematics
c) Sero taxonomy
d) Numerical taxonomy
c) Sero taxonomy
Which of the following is not a flowering plant with root nodules containing filamentous nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms?
a) Crotalaria juncea
b) Cycas revoluta
c) Cice rarietinum
d) Casuarina equisetifolia
b) Cycas revoluta
Flowers are weakly zygomorphic in
What is the role of national gardens in conserving biodiversity
Botanical Gardens play the following important roles.
- Gardens with an aesthetic value attract a large number of visitors. For example, the Great Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis) in the Indian Botanical Garden at Kolkata
- Gardens have a wide range of species and supply taxonomic material for botanical research.
- Garden is used for self-instruction or demonstration purposes.
Where will you place the plants which contain two cotyledons with cup-shaped thalamus
- Two cotyledonous plants are kept under Dicotyledonou
- Cup-shaped thalamus is a unique feature of the series Thalamiflorae of subclass
How do molecular markers work to unlock the evolutionary history of organisms?
Molecular taxonomy using molecular markers like RAPD’s etc helps in establishing the relationship between the members of different taxonomic groups at the DNA level. Thus it helps to unlock the evolutionary history of organisms.
Give the F.D of Clutoria ternalia
How will you distinguish Solanaceae members from Liliaceae members.
JSolanaceae (Dicot) Morphology
Liliaceae (Monocot) Morphology
|Bulbous stem / rhizome / corm absent but stem tuber present eg. Solarium tuberosum||Bulbous Stem – Lilium
Corm – Colchicum Occur
|Radical leaves Cariscup } Absent from roots||Radical leaves present eg. Lilium|
|Leaves alternate & exstipulate||Slipules absent exstipulate fleshy and hollow|
|Flowers – Pentamerous||Flowers – Trimerous|
|Calyx_ – Persistent -Solanum melongena||Calyx , Corolla – Absent|
|Corolla of various shapes present||Perranth is only present|
|Stamens – 5 – Epipetalous||Stamens – 6 – In a whorl of three each apostamenous|
Carpels oblipuely placed bicarpellary later become tetra carpellary due to the formation of false septa
|Ovary superior tricarpellary trilocular|
|Fruits – Berry / capsule||Fruits – Loculierdal capsula|
Bi-collateral Vascular Bundles occur
Cambium present Secondary growth present
Conjoint collateral Vascular bundles
No secondary growth
Part – B
11th Bio Botany Guide Taxonomy and Systematic Botany Additional Important Questions and Answers
Choose the correct answer:
Who is called the father of Botany?
The latest ICBN was held at
a) Cambridge – England
b) Leningrad – Russia
c) Shenzhen – China
d) Rio-de genero – America
cl Shenzhen China
Who proposed the concept of “idos” or species?
The floral of Tamil Nadu Carnatic by K.M. Mathew (1983) and Flora of Madras Presidency by J.S Gamble and Fischer belong to
d) Regional flora
d) Regional flora
Who first proposed the early elementary rule of naming plants?
(a) A.P.de Candolle
(c) Alphonse de Candolle
Botanical Garden of New South Wales is located at
b) New York
d) Rio de Janeiro
18th International Botanical congress was held at …………….
Plants with incomplete flowers either a petalous or with undifferentiated calyx and corolla are placed under the sub class
Adolph Engler and Karl – A – Prantl are
a) Americal taxonomists
b) French taxonomists
c) Chinese taxonomists
d) German taxonomists
d) German taxonomists
…………… is a descriptive phrase of a plant.
(a) Vernacular name
(d) Botanical name
The fruit is geocarpic in
a) Vigna radiate
b) Cablab purpuris
c) Araehis hypogea
d) Cicer arietinum
c) Arachis hypogea
The term biosystematics was introduced by
a) Chrispeels and Gartner
b) Camp and Gilly
c) Engler and Prantl
d) Bentham and Hooker
b) Camp and Gilly
…………… are the tools for identifying unfamiliar plants.
Most of the seeds are reniform in
Plants with incomplete flowers either petalous or with undifferentiated calyx and corolla are placed under
First modern botanical garden was established by …………… .
(c) Luca Ghini
(c) Luca Ghini
Phenology is the study
a) Pollen grains structure
b) Development of gametes
c) Study of climate and weather on plants
d) Study of functional aspects of plants
c) Study of climate and weather on plants
Tephrosia purpurea, Indigofera tinctoria are plants used as
a) Biofuel or bioenergy
b) Bio manure
b) Bio manure.
Carpels are obliquely placed in the family
Which series includes epigynous flowers with an inferior ovary?
II. Fill up the blanks in the given Tabulation
Name of the Taxonomist BOOK No. of plants
Name of the Taxonomist
No. of plants
|i. Theophrastus (372 – 287 BC)||De Historia Pfcntarum||………………….|
|ii. ……………….||Materia Medica||600 plants|
|iii. Carolus Linnaeus||Species Plantarum||………….|
|iv. ………………||3 volumes of Genera Plantarum||97205 species (202 families)|
i. 500 Plants
ii. Discoredes (62 – 127 AD)
iii. 7300 Species
iv. Bentham & Hooker
|i. Family||Comprises a no of genera which share some similarities||…………………..|
|ii. …………………||Group of families shows fewer similarities among themselves||Malvales|
|iii. Class||Group of order which share few similarities||…………………..|
|iv. ………………….||Number of classes||Magnoliophyta|
(iv) Sub – Division
Name of the IBC
|i. 5th International Botanical Congress||………………………..||1930|
|ii. 12th International Botanical Congress||Leningrad – Russia||…………………..|
|iii. 18th International Botanical Congress||……………………..||2011|
|iv. …………………||Shenzhen – China||2017|
b) Cambridge – England 1975 Melbourne Australia 19th I BC
III. Find out the correct statement.
Find out the Correct Statements the given below.
a) Scientific Names are treated as Latin regardless of their derivation
b) Cryptogams include non-flowering plants
c) Linnaeus system of classification is known as the Natural system of classification
d) According to APG IV Monocots contain 10 orders and 37 families
(I) a & b
(II) b & c
(III) c & d
(IV) a & d
(I) a & b
Find out the correct statements from the given below
a) Botanical name of chilly – Capsicum esculentum
b) Ashwagandha is also known as Amukkura
c) An alkaloid colchicine is got from Colchicum luteum
d) Glycine max is the botanical name of the Soya bean
(I) a & b
(II) b & d
(III) a & c
(IV) c & d
(II) b & d
IV. Assertion and reason
Assertion: Classification is essential in biology because there is a vast diversity of organisms to sort out and compare
Reason: Unless they are organized into manageable Categories, It will be difficult for the identification
(A) Assertion and Reason correct. The reason is explaining Assertion
(B) Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason not explaining Assertion
(C) Assertion is true, but Reason is wrong
(D) Assertion is true, but Reason is not explaining Assertion
a – Assertion and Reason correct. Reason is explaining Assertion
Assertion: Cronquist system of classification could not persist for a long time.
Reason: The system is not very useful for identification and cannot be adopted in herbaria.
d) Assertion ‘A’ is true Reason ‘R’ is not explaining Assertion
Assertion : Monograph is a complete global account of a faxon of any rank family genus or species at a given time
Reason : It has books of libraries rich in botanical litles.
d) Assertion correct but Reason not explaining Assertion
Assertion A: Chemotaxonomy is the scientific approach to the classification of plants on the basis of their biochemical constituents
Reason R: Proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and peptides, etc are the most studied chemicals in chemotaxonomy
a) Assertion and Reason ‘R’ correct Reason is explaining Assertion
V. Match the following and find the correct
Name of Herbarium No. of specimens
i) Presidency college Herbarium – Chennai – A. 4,08,776
ii) Central National Herbarium – Calcutta – B. 30,500
iii) Madras Herbarium – Coimbatore – C. 15,000
iv) Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanical Garden – D. 2,00,000
and Reserach Institute Trivandrum
a) C D A B
Botanical Name Common Name
(I) Glycirrhiza glabra A. Thanneer Muttan
(II) Withania somnifera B. Athimaduram
(III) Asperagus racemosus C. Senkandal
(IV) Gloriosa superba D. Amukkara
a) B D A C
VI. Choose the wrong answer
(i) Karyology – Study of Chromosomes
(ii) Palynology – Study of Pollen
(iii) Serology – Study of Antibiotics
(iv) Paleology – Study of Fossils
(iii) – Serology study of antibiotics
(i) Tree – Solanum violceum
(ii) Prickles on the Body of the plant – Solanum xantho carpum
(iii) Vines – Lycium sinensis
(iv) Herb – Solanum nigrum
(II) prickles on the body of the plant – body Solanum xantho carpum
Botanical Garden Major Attraction
(i) Nation Botanical Garden Lucknow – Germplasm collection & exsitu conversation
(ii) JNTBGRI Trivandrum (Kerala) – Bambusetum
(iii) National orchidarium Yercaud – Fernery
(iv) Indian Botanical Garden Kolkata – The great Banyan tree
(iii) National orchidarium Yercard – Fernery
Choose the right answer :
(i) Plants having Dome-shaped thalamus – Gamopetalae
(ii) Plants having Cup-shaped thalamus – Calyciflorae
(iii) Plants having epigynous flowers – Thalamiflorae
(iv) Plants with united petals & sepals – Inferae
(ii) Plants having cup-shaped thalamus Calyciflorae
VII. Match correctly & give the correct answer
(i) Systema Naturae -A. 1862-63
(ii) Philosophia botanica -B.1753
(iii) Species plantarum -C. 1735
(iv) General plantarum -D.1737
c) C – D – B – A
(i) Library of British Museum – A. Revision
(ii) Malvaceae of India by T.K. Paul – B. Catalogue
(iii) Family of Lentibulariaceae
by M.K. Janarthanam & Henry – C. Botanical Garden Lucknow
(iv) 500 species of rose hybrids – D. Monograph
a) B A D C
Botanical Name – Common Name
(i) Butea Frondosa – A. Rose Wood
(ii) Sesbania grandiflora – B. Garden pea
(iii) Dalbergia latefolia – C. Flame of the forest
(iv) Pisum sativum – D. Agathe
b) C D A B
Common name Botanical name
(i) Rose wood – A. Pterocarpus dalbergioides
(ii) Red Sandal wood – B. Dalbergia latifolia
(iii) Padauk – C. Pterocarpus marsupium
(iv) Vengai – D. Pterocarpus santalinus
c) B D A C
VIII. Find out the true and false statements from the following and on that basis find the correct answer:
(i) The evolution & classification of flowering plants – Arthur cronquist
(ii) Origin of species – Engler & prantl
(iii) Philosophia botanica – Linnaeus
(iv) Theorie elementaire de-botanique – A.P. de. Candolle
a) True False True True
Find out the True and False statements from the following and on that basis find the correct answer:
(i) Documents of all plant species in a given geographical area is known as – Monograph
(ii) These are often descriptive & poetic references to plants – Vernacular name
(iii) A complete global account of a taxon of any rank – Flora
(iv) Tools of Identification implemented by Computer – Polyclave key
b) False True False True
Taxonomy is “the science dealing with the study of classification including the bases, principles, rules and procedures”.
What are the characteristics of a species
- Population of organism closely resemble each other
- Descend from common ancestor
- They sexually interbreed freely producing fertile offspring
- They have morphological resemblance in asexually reproducing organism
- In fossil organisms they are identified by their morphological & anatomical resemblance
Which is the lowest taxon in classification? Define.
Species is the lowest taxon in classification. It is defined as the group of individuals which are closely resembling each other and interbreed among themselves producing fertile offspring.
Define Binomial Nomenclature.
- Introduced by Gaspard Barhin
- Implemented by Carolus Linnaeus
- Scientific name of a plant consists of 2 words.
- First one is Genus name
- Second one is Species name.
- Genus Species
Eg: Mangifera – Genus – indica – Species
What are vernacular names? Give an example.
Vernacular names are known as common names. Example: Albizia Amara L. is called as Usilai in South Tamil Nadu and Thurinji in North Tamil Nadu.
Biosystematics Define & Give its objectives.
What is the importance of serotaxonomy.
When a neotype specimen is selected?
Neotype Specimen is derived from non – original collection selected as the type when the original specimen is missing or destroyed.
- Increased knowledge of chromosomes Have been used for extensive biosystematic studies & resolving many taxonomic problems.
- Cytological especially chromosomal characters such as number, size, morphology and behaviour during meiosis are of taxonomic value.
Differentiate Regional Flora from continental flora.
Regional Flora from continental flora.
- Regional Flora: Flora covering a large geographical area or a botanical region Ex: flora of Madras Presidency.
- Continental Flora: Flora covering the entire continent. Ex: flora of Europaea.
Write down the Aims of Chemotaxonomy.
- To develop taxonomic characters to improve, the existing system of plant classification
- To improve the present-day knowledge of phylogeny o plants.
- Introduced by Camp and Gilly in 1943
- It is an experimental, ecological cyto taxonomy through which life forms studied and their relationships defined
How Cronquist classified the angiosperms?
Cronquist classified the angiosperms into two main classes Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida.
Why do we say that the development of fruit in Arachis hypogea is geocarpic?
- In Arachis hypogea after fartilization, the stipe of ovary become meristematic and grows down into the soil.
- The ovary gets buried into the soil and so we call the fmit as groundnut.
Distinguish between Stipule, Stipel and Pulvinus in the leaf of Fabaceae.
|The compound leaf has a stipule a green scale like structure from which the leaf originate||It is a small scaly structure at the base of the leaflet of compound leaf||The R achis and petcole of the leaf, and leaf lets have swollen, this condition is known as Pulvinus|
Draw the structure of Papilionaceous Carolla of Fabacoae
Differentiate between Phylloclade & Cladodo of Liliaceae.
|(aerial sterm or branch modification)
Branch is modified . leaves reduced to scales
|(aerial sterm modification)
Aerial sterm is modified, leaves reduced to scales
Point out the aims of chemotaxonomy.
The aims of chemotaxonomy:
- To develop taxonomic characters which may improve the existing system of plant classification.
- To improve present-day knowledge of the phylogeny of plants.
What is meant by Scapigerous Inflorescence?
Here the inflorescence axis (peduncle) arising from the ground bearing a cluster of flowers at its apex, with pedicels of equal length.
Label the given diagram
B – Perianth
C – Epipetalous stamens
A- Persistent calyx
B – Spiny outgrowth
C – Valves
D – Seed
Differentiate between Magnoliopsia and Liliopsida
|6 subclasses||5 subclasses|
|64 orders||19 orders|
|318 families||65 families|
|165,000 species||50000 species|
- Highly Phylogenetic could not persist.
- Not useful for identification & cannot be adopted.
Compare the Gynoecium of Pisum sativum and Datura metal.
Gynoecium of Pisum sativum:
- Mono Carpellary
- Ovules on marginal placentation
- Feathery stigma
Gynoecium of Datura metal:
- Ovules on axile placentation
- Bilobed stigma
Distinguish between Monophyletic, Paraphyletic & polyphyletic group.
Why do we think that cladistics is of much needed and important today?
- Commonly used & accepted for phylogenetic classifications.
- Produces a hypothesis about the relationship of organisms to predict the morphological characteristics of an organism.
- Help to elucidate the mechanism of evolution.
Give the systematic position of Pea family.
Bentham & Hooker’s Classifications
Differentiate between Taxonomy & Systematics.
- The discipline of classifying organisms into taxa
- Governs the practices of naming, describing, identifying and specimen preservation.
- Classification + Nomenclature = Taxonomy
- Broad field of biology that studies the diversification of species
- Governs the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationship in addition to taxonomy
- Taxonomy + Phylogeny = Systematics
- Collection of collected, pressed and dried plant specimens preserved, then mounted on a sheet of paper is referred to as Herbarium.
- It also refers to the Institution where many such Herbaria are preserved.
- Eg. Royal Botanical garden Kew London.
Linnaeus classification is also called sexual system of classification. Why?
Linnaeus classification is mostly based on sexual characters like number, union, length and distribution of stamens and also on carpel characters. Hence it is called sexual system of classification.
Various types of habits in Fabaceae.
|Prostrate herbs||Indigofera enneaphylla|
|Erect herb||Crotalaria verrucosa|
|Climbers Large trees||Clitoria sp Pongamia, Dalbergia|
|Hydrophyte||Aeschyno mene aspera|
Explain Androecium of Family Fabaceae
1. Diadelphous – Stamens (9) + 1-9 Stamens united 1 free
2. Diadelphous – (5) + (5) – Stamens in 2 bundles of 5 each.
3. Monoadelphous but dimorphic – Out of 10 stamens 5 are with longer flaments longer anther 5 are with shorter Flaments and short anthers known as Dimorphic
Tabulate various types of Inflorescence of Solanaceae
|Extra axillary Scorpioid cymo or Rhipidium||Solanurn nigrurn|
|Helicoid cyme||Solanurn tuberosum|
|Umbellate cyme||Withania somnifera|
Tabulate various types of petals of Solanaceae.
|5 petals – sympetalous|
|Rotate & tubular – Solanum|
|Bell-shaped – Atropa|
|I Infundibuliform – Petunia|
|Bilipped & Zygomorphic – Schizanthus|
|Infundibuliform & Convolute – Datura|
Tabulate ornamental plants from any 3 families you have studied.
|Family Fabaceae||Family Solanaceae||
|Butea frondosa (Flame of the forest) Clitoria tematea (sangu – flower)||Cestrium diumum – day Tulipa suaveolens — Tulip Jasmine)||Petunia hybrida Agapanthus african us garden petunia (African only|
What is meant by Taxonomical Aids. Explain any one of it
- Tools aiding Taxonomical study are known as Taxonomical Aids
- There are many types of these Aids keys, Flora, Revisions Monograph, Catalogues,
- Herbarium and Botanical garden
- Local Flora – Covers limited area sate, Country, City mountain, etc Eg. Flora of Thiruvannamalai District
- Regional Flora – Include large geographical area Eg. Flora of Tamilnadu Carnatic by K.M. Mathew
- Continental Flora – Cover entire continent Eg. Flora of Europaea by D.A. Web
- Electronic Flora – Digital format of flora published online Eg. E Flora of China
Type Concept Explain also its types
ICN’s second principle is that a specimen must be associated with a scientific name known as nomenclatural type (specimen, or its illustration)
Eg. Herbarium sheet: –
There are 7 types
The original Protologue of the author is a definite source of identity
Citation & submission of it is one of the criteria for valid publication of a botanical name
- Isotype: Duplicate of Holotypes
- Same person on the same date with same field number
- Reliable duplicates of holotype – to be distributed to various herbaria of various region
- Lectotype: Specimen selected from original material may serve as Lectotype when holotype is missing or destroyed
- Syntype: When the author cites more than one specimen in his Protologue without designating Holotype.
- Neotype: Specimen from the non-original collection when original
- Paratype: holotype missing or destroyed: specimen other than Holo, Iso, or Syntype
- Epitope: Specimen or illustration serves as an interpretive type when all the above types are ambiguous.
Draw the outline classification of APG IV.
Give an account of APG classification
- Most recent classification of flowering plants
- Done in last decade of 20th century
- All these provide data with respect to DNA seqences of 2 chloroplast genes (extrachromosomal) (atp B and r bcL) and one nuclear gene (nuclear ribosomal 18 s DNA).
Tabulate Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification
Define biosystematics & list out the aim of biosystematics.
1. Biosystematics: Biosystematics is an “Experimental, ecological and cytotaxonomy” through which life forms are studied and their relationships are defined.
2. Aims of Biosystematics: The aims of biosystematics are as follows:
- To delimit the naturally occurring biotic community of plant species.
- To establish the evolution of a group of taxa by understanding the evolutionary and phylogenetic trends.
- To involve any type of data gathering based on modem concepts and not only on morphology and anatomy.
- To recognize the various groups as separate biosystematics categories such as ecotypes, ecospecies, cenospecies, and comparium.
Tabulate various International Herbarium
Number of specimens
|1.Museum National d’Historie Naturelle, Paris, France||1635||P ,PC||10,000,000|
|2. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York, U.S.A||1891||NY||72,00,000|
|3. Komarov Botanical Institute, St.Petersburg (Leningrad), Russia||1823||LE||71,60,000|
|4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, U.K||1841||K||70,00,000|
Write down the uses of Herbarium
- Provides resource material for systematic research & studies
- A place for the orderly arrangement of voucher specimens
- Voucher specimen serves as a reference for comparing doubtful Newly collected fresh specimen
- Voucher specimens play a role in
- Studies like floristic diversity
- Environmental assessment
- Ecological mechanisms &
- Survey of unexplored area
- provides an opportunity for documenting biodiversity and studies related to the field of ecology & conservation biology.
- Study of various chemicals available in plants help to solve the certain taxonomical problem
- Chemotaxonomy scientific approach of classification of plants on the basis of their biochemical constituents
- Proteins – (more controlled by genes less subjected to natural selection)
- So used at all hierarchical level of classification starling from variety to division.
- Other chemicals studied are – Amino acids, nucleic acids – peptides
Explain Engler & Prantl’s Phylogenetic system of classification
The two German scientists published their work in a monumental work.
Die Naturechen P flangen families in 23 volumes.
Write down the significance of Molecular taxonomy
- Conserved molecular sequences helped to identify
- DNA data help in – investigation of evolutionary patterns
- DNA taxonomy – play vital role in, understanding
- phytogeography – help in genome mapping & bio deversity Conservation
- DNA based Molecular markers – used for designing DNA based molecular probes
What is DNA barcoding?
- A scanner like the UPC of supermarket things, – DNA barcoding is a taxonomical device to distinguish one species from another.
- A very short genetic sequence from a standard part of a genome is used as a DNA tag or barcode to identify a plant
- Paul Hebert proposed it and so-known as the Father of barcoding.
Significance of DNA barcoding.
- Helps in the identification and classification organism
- Aids in the mapping the extend of bio-diversity
- Eventhough it require a large data base of sequences for comparison & prior knowledge of the barcoding region, it is helpful tool to determine the authenticity of botanical material in whole, cut or powdered form.
Differences between Classical and Modern taxonomy.
Give an account of Botanical description of clitoria ternatea (Sangupushpam).
Habit – Twining climber
Root – Branched tap root system
Stem – Aerial weak stem, twiner
Leaf – Imparipmnately compound, Petcolate, Alternate, stipulate,
Leaf lets stipellate, stipels are pulvinate reticulate venation
Inflorescence – Solitary and Axillary
Flower -Zygomorphic Bracteate, Bracteolate (large) Bisexual complete
Dichlamydeous – Pedicellate, Pentarnerous & Hypogynous
Calyx – 5 sepals synsepalous valvate aestivation odd sepal anterior in position
Corolla – 5 petals apopetalous
1 standard petal -(Vexillum)
2 wing petals -(aiea)
2 keel petal(carina) – united at the base in descendingly imbricate aestivation
Androecium – 10 stamens diadeiphous
(9) + 1 (i.e.) nine united one free in 2 + bundleš
Anther – Dithecous , basifixed introse and devisce by Longitudinal Division
Gynoecium – Made up of ovary style & stigma
Ovary – Superior with a prominent stipe monocarpellary, unilocular with many ovules on marginal placentation
Style – simple incurved
Stigma – feathery
Fruit – Legume
Seed – non endospermous reniform
Describe any 3 Molecular method ¡n genetic analysis & phylogenetics.
Give an account of the botanical description of Datura metal
Habit – Large erect, stout, herb
Root – Branched tap root system
Stem – Hollow, herbaceous strong odour
Leaf – Simple, alternate, petiolate, entire or deeply lobed glabrous, exstipulate unicostate reticulate venation
Inflorescence – Solitary & Axillary cyme
Flower – Actinomorphic, (Regular) Bracteate, Bracteolate, Bisexual Complete Dichlamydeous Pentamerous, sessile & hypogynous
Calyx – 5 sepals synsepalous
Valvate aestivation persistant
Corolla – 5 petals synpetalous plicate 10 lobed Twisted aestivation funneishaped
Androecium – 5 stamens – epipetalous altemi petalous .
Anther – dithecous, basifixed, introse longitudinal dehiseence
Gynoecium – Superior – bicarpellary bilocular,
Ovary – syncarpous basically bilocular later become tetralocular due to the formation of false septa Carpels obliquely placed ovules on swollen axile placentation
Style – simple long flu form
Stigma – bibbed
Fruit – Spinesent capsule opening by four apical valves persistent calyx
Seed – Endospermous
Give an account of botanical description of Allium cepa.
Habit – Perrennial herb with bulb
Root – Fibrous adventitious root system
Stem – Underground bulb
Leaf – Radical leaves cylindrical fleshy with sheathing leaf bases & parallel venation
Inflorescence – scafrigerous, pedicels of equal length arising from apex of peduncle
Flower – Small white
Bracteate, eBracteolate Bisexual Complete
Trimerous – hypogynous
Flowers – Protandrous
Perianth – 6 Tetals in 2 whorls of 3 each syntepalous Valvate acstivatíon
Androecium – 6 stamens in a whorls of 3 each epipelatous
Anther – Dithecous basifixed, introse and longitudinal dehiscence
Ovary – Superior, tricarpellary trilocular 2 ovules in each locule on axile
Style – simple, slender
Sligma – simple
Fruit – loculicidal capsule.
Give an account of the Economic importance of Fabaceae in the form of a Tabulation Economic Importance of the family Fabaceae
Economic Importance of Solanaceae
Tabulate economic Importance of the family Liliaceae Economic Importance of the family Liliaceae