Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Pdf Chapter 1 The Living World Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.

   

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

11th Bio Zoology Guide Living World Text Book Back Questions and Answers

Part I

Question 1.
A living organism is differentiated from a non-living structure based on
a. Reproduction
b. Growth
c. Metabolism
d. All the above
Answer:
d. All the above

Question 2.
A group of organisms having similar traits of a rank is
a. Species
b. Taxon
c. Genus
d. Family
Answer:
b. Taxon

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 3.
Every unit of classification regardless of its rank is
a. Taxon
b. Variety
c. Species
d. Strain
Answer:
a. Taxon

Question 4.
Which of the following is not present in the same rank?
a. Primata
b. Orthoptera
c. Diptera
d. Insecta
Answer:
a. Primata

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 5.
What taxonomic aid gives comprehensive information about a taxon?
a. Taxonomic Key
b. Herbarium
c. Flora
d. Monograph
Answer:
a. Taxonomic Key

Question 6.
Who coined the term biodiversity?
a. Walter Rosen
b. AG Tansley
c. Aristotle
d. AP de Candole
Answer:
a. Walter Rosen

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 7.
Cladogram considers the following characters
a. Physiological and Biochemical
b. Evolutionary and Phylogenetic
c. Taxonomic and systematic
d. None of the above
Answer:
b. Evolutionary and Phylogenetic

Question 8.
The molecular taxonomic tool consists of
a. DNA and RNA
b. Mitochondria and Endoplasmic reticulum
c. Cell wall and Membrane proteins
d. All the above
Answer:
a. DNA and RNA

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 10.
Differentiate between probiotics and pathogenic bacteria
Answer:

Probiotics Pathogenic bacteria
1. It converts the milk into curd (Eg.) Lactobacillus It causes diseases in plants and animals
2. It decomposes debris. Tomato – bacterial species
3. By the action of fermentation vinegar is produced. (Eg.) Acetobacter Anthrax, Tuberculosis Pneumonia Tetanus,

Question 11.
Why mule is sterile?
Answer:
Mule gets one set of chromosomes (32) from male parent, horse and one set of chromosomes (31) from female parent, donkey. These two sets of chromosomes do not match with each other and cannot produce gametes by meiosis. Hence mule is sterile in nature.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 12.
What is the role of Charles Darwin in relation to the concept of species?
Answer:
Charles Darwin’s book on Origin of Species explains the evolutionary connections of species by the process of natural selection.

Question 13.
Why elephants and other wild animals are entering the human living areas?
Answer:

  • For the construction of houses, dams, and factories forests are destroyed. The area surface of forests is also getting reduced.
  • As the bull elephant is hunted for their tusks the cow elephant during breeding season enters in to the dwelling area of people.

Question 14.
What is the difference between a Zoo and a wildlife sanctuary?

Zoo Wildlife Sanctuary
1. They have formed artificially. It’s a place of nature.
2. Animals are in houses within the enclosure. Animals roam freely in their natural surrounding.
3. They are formed for the purpose of free time enjoyment of people. They are not formed for the purpose of enjoyment.

Question 15.
Can we use recent molecular tools to identify and classify organisms?
Answer:
The recent molecular taxonomical tools can be used to identify and classify the organism. The following molecular techniques and approaches are used in molecular tools.

  1. DNA barcoding – Short genetic marker in an organism’s DNA to identify whether it belongs to a particular species.
  2. DNA hybridization – Measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.
  3. DNA fingerprinting – to identify an individual from a sample of DNA by looking at unique patterns in their DNA.
  4. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Analysis- the difference in homologous DNA sequences can be detected by the presence of fragments of different lengths after digestion of DNA samples.
  5. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing- to amplify a specific gene or portion of a gene.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 16.
Explain the role of Latin and Greek names in Biology.
Answer:
Aristotle (384 to 322 BC) was the first to classify all animals in his Historia Animalium in Latin. He classified the living organisms into plants and animals. Animals were classified as walking (terrestrial), flying (birds), and swimming (aquatic) based on their locomotion.

He classified the animals with red blood cells as Enaima and those without red blood cells as Anaima. Though his method of classification had limitations, his contribution to biology was remarkable. Theophrastus did his research on the classification of plants. He was known as the Father of Botany.

Part II 

11th Bio Zoology Guide The Living World Additional Important Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The smallest taxon among the following is ………. (PMT-94)
(a) class
(b) order
(c) species
(d) genus
Answer:
(c) species

Question 2.
Aristotle has classified organisms based on the following category of locomotion.
a. Walking & bore dwellers
b. Flying & arboreal
c. Swimmers & aquatic
d. All the above.
Answer:
c. Swimmers & aquatic
d. All the above.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 3.
Species is
(a) not related to evolution
(b) specific class of evolution
(c) specific unit of evolution
(d) fertile specific unit in the evolutionary history of a race
Answer:
(d) fertile specific unit in the evolutionary history of a race

Question 4.
Whose researchers confirm that species is a fundamental unit of classification.
a. John Ray
b. R.H. Whittaker
c. CarlWoese
d. Cavalier-Smith
Answer:
a. John Ray

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 5.
A group of plants or animals with similar traits of any rank is kept under ………. (PMT-96)
(a) species
(b) genus
(c) order
(d) taxon
Answer:
(d) taxon

Question 6.
Who has developed binomial nomenclature.
a. Carolus Linnaeus
b. Augustin
c. Aristotle
d. Ernst Haeckel
Answer:
a. Carolous Linnaeus

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 7.
New systematic and the concept of life was given by ……….. (BHU-98)
(a) Huxley
(b) Odom
(c) Elton
(d) Linnaeus
Answer:
(c) Elton

Question 8.
The three domains classification is based on the difference in the gene.
a. 60s rRNA
b. 70s rRNA
c. l6s rRNA
d. m RNA
Answer:
c. l6s rRNA

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 9.
Which of the following will form a new species? (PMT-98)
(a) inter breeding
(b) variations
(c) differential reproduction
(d) none of the above
Answer:
(b) variations

Question 10.
Find out the correct sequence by matching.
A. Augustin Pyramus de Candole – Father of Botany
B. Aristotle – Father of Modern Taxonomy
C. Carolus Linnaeus – Father of Taxonomy
D. Theophrastus – Introduces Taxonomy
Answer:
D. Theophrastus – Introduces Taxonomy

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 11.
Crosses between animals – Match.
A. Male Horse + Female Donkey – Tigon
B. Male Donkey + Female Horse – Tiger
C. Male Lion + Female Tiger – Mule
D. Male Tiger + Female Lion – Hinny
a) A-II, B -1, C – IV, D – III
b) A-IV, B -1, C – II, D – III
c) A-I, B-II, C-III, D-IV
d) A-IV, B-I, C-II, D-III
Answer:
A-II, B -I, C – IV, D – III

Question 12.
In classification, the category below the level of family is ……….. (CET-98)
(a) class
(b) species
(c) phylum
(d) genus
Answer:
(d) genus

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 13.
Find out the wrong pair
a. Peacock – Pavocristatus
b. Tiger – Pantheratigeris
c. Man -Homosapiens
d. Domestic crow – Salcopopsindica
Answer:
d. Domestic crow – Salcopopsindica

Question 14.
Find the correct match.
1. John ray -a. Five kingdom concept
2. Linnaeus -b. Cladogram
3. Ernest Haeckel -c. Binomial nomenclature
4. R.H. Whittaker – d. Methodus Plantarum
a. 1 -d,2-c,3-b,4-a
b. 1-a,2-b,3-c,4-d
c. 1 – c, 2 – a, 3 – b, 4 – d
d. 1 – d, 2 – c, 3 – a, 4 – b
Answer:
a. 1 -d,2-c,3-b,4-a

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World
Question 15.
Which of the following taxons cover a greater number of organisms?(PMT-2001)
(a) order
(b) family
(c) genus
(d) phylum
Answer:
(d) phylum

Question 16.
Which class of protozoa is totally parasitic? (BHU 1994)
(a) Sporozoa
(b) Mastigophora
(c) Ciliate
(d) Sarcodina
Answer:
(a) Sporozoa

Question 17.
Reproduction in Paramecium is controlled by ………. (BHU 1999).
(a) flagella
(b) cell wall
(c) micronucleus
(d) macronucleus
Answer:
(c) micronucleus

Question 18.
In the life cycle of Plasmodium, exflagellation occurs in ……….. (BHU 2007)
(a) sporozoites
(b) microgametes
(c) macrogametes
(d) signet ring
Answer:
(b) microgametes

Question 19.
Excretion in Amoeba occurs through ………… (DPMT 1997)
(a) lobopodia
(b) plasma membrane
(c) uroid portion
(d) contractile vacuole
Answer:
(d) contractile vacuole

Question 20.
Method of dispersal in Amoeba is ……….. (DPMT 1995)
(a) locomotion
(b) encystment
(c) sporulation
(d) binary fission
Answer:
(b) encystment

(2 marks)

II. Very Short Questions

Question 1.
Define ecosystem.
Answer:
The ecosystem is defined as a community of living organisms (plants and animals), non-living things (minerals, climate, soil, sunlight, and water), and their interrelationships, e.g. Forest and grassland.

Question 2.
What are the unique characteristic features of living organisms?
Answer:

  • Cellular organization
  • Nutrition
  • Respiration
  • Metabolism
  • Movement
  • Reproduction
  • Excretion
  • Homeostasis

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 3.
The mating between different species produces sterile offsprings.
Answer:
The maternal and paternal chromosomes of the offsprings produced by the mating between different species are not identical and hence gametes are not produced by meiotic division.

Question 4.
What is the need for classification?
Answer:
The basic need for classification are:

  • To identify and differentiate closely related species.
  • To know the variation among the species.
  • To understand the evolution of the species.
  • To create a phylogenetic tree among the different groups.
  • To conveniently study living organisms.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 5.
Why are molecular tools used now to study taxonomy?
Answer:
Molecular tools are accurate and authentic. Hence they are used to study taxonomy.

Question 6.
What are the features of systematics?
Answer:

  • Identifying, describing, naming, arranging, preserving, and documenting the organisms.
  • Investigating the evolutionary history of the species, their adaptations to the environment, and the interrelationship among species.

Question 7.
What is the phylogenetic tree?
Answer:
It’s a method of representing evolutionary relationships with the help of a tree diagram known as a cladogram.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 8.
What are the limitations of Aristotle’s classification?
Answer:
Many organisms were not fitting into his classification. Frogs have lungs and they are amphibians while their larva, the tadpole is aquatic and respires through gills. It is difficult to classify frogs according to his method. All flying organisms such as birds, bats, flying insects were grouped together. Ostrich, emu, and penguin are flightless birds and hence they cannot be classified by his method.

Question 9.
What are the three domains of life indicate?
Answer:
This system emphasizes the separation of prokaryotes into two domains.

Question 10.
What is numerical taxonomy?
Answer:
The evaluation of resemblances and differences of organisms through statistical methods followed by computer analysis to establish the numerical degree of relationship among them is known as numerical taxonomy.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 11.
What is the seven taxonomic hierarchy?
Answer:

  1. Kingdom
  2. Phyla
  3. Class
  4. Order
  5. Family
  6. Genus
  7. Species

Question 12.
Define species?
Answer:
It is a group of animals having similar morphological features and is reproductively isolated to produce fertile offspring.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 13.
What is cladistic classification?
Answer:
Cladistic classification is the method of classifying organisms based on genetic differences among all species in a phylogenetic tree.

Question 14.
Define order?
Answer:
Order is an assemblage of one or more related families which show few common features. (Eg) Family Candiae and Felidae are placed in the order Carnivora.

Question 15.
Define class.
Answer:
Class includes one or more related orders with some common characters.

Question 16.
Define Phylum.
Answer:
The group of classes with similar distinctive characteristics constitute phylum.

Question 17.
Define animal kingdom.
Answer:
All living animals belonging to various phyla are included in the kingdom.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 18.
What are the features that we have to keep in mind in naming them scientifically?
Answer:

  • Morphology
  • Genetic information
  • Habitat
  • Feeding pattern
  • Adaptations
  • Evolutions

Question 19.
Define species.
Answer:
A species is a group of organisms that have similar morphological and physiological characters which can interbreed to produce fertile offsprings.

Question 20.
What are taxonomical keys?
Answer:
Keys are based on a comparative analysis of the similarities and dissimilarities of organisms. There are separate keys for different taxonomic categories.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 21.
Distinguish between species and genus.
Answer:
Species:

  • A species is a group of interbreeding populations having similar characters.
  • It is the basic unit of classification e.g. Felis Domestica, genus species.

Genus:

  • Genus is a group of related species.
  • It is the second level in classification, e.g., Felis margarita genus species.

Question 22.
Define Zoological parks.
Answer:
These are places where wild animals are kept in protected environments under human care.
It enables us to study their food habits and behaviour.

Question 23.
What is binomial system of nomenclature?
Answer:
The system of naming the organism with two names, generic name, and specific (species) name is known as the binomial system of nomenclature, e.g. Pavo cristatus – Indian pea fowl.

Question 24.
What is printed taxonomical tools?
Answer:

  • Identification cards
  • Description
  • Field guides
  • Manuals

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 25.
What is the phylogenetic tree?
Answer:
It is the inferred evolutionary relationships upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characters.

Question 26.
What is trinomial system of nomenclature?
Answer:
The system of naming the organism with three names, generic name, specific name (species), and sub-species name is known as the trinomial system of nomenclature, e.g. Corvus splendens -Indian house crow.

Question 27.
What are shared characters?
Answer:
A shared character is one that two lineages have in common.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 28.
What are derived characters?
Answer:
Derived character is one that evolved in the lineage leading up to a clade.

Question 29.
Vandaloor Zoological park.
Answer:

  • It is situated in the South-Western Part of Chennai.
  • It spreads over an area of 1500 acres.
  • It is one of the largest zoological parks in India.
  • The Zoo houses 2553 species of both flora and fauna.

(3 marks)

III. Short Questions

Question 1.
Define ecosystem.
Answer:
The ecosystem is defined as a community of living organisms (plants and animals), non-living things (minerals, climate, soil, sunlight, and water), and their interrelationships, e.g. Forest and grassland.

Question 2.
On which criteria the systematic classification is done?
Answer:

  • Evolutionary history.
  • Environmental adaptations.
  • Environmental relationship.
  • The interrelationship between species.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 3.
Give an account of Aristotle’s classification?
Answer:

  •  In his book ‘History of Animals,’ he classifies plants and animals into two categories.
  • Based on locomotion walking, flying, swimming,
  • He classifies the organisms on the basis of blood.
  • He classifies the animals into two as ‘Enaima’ with blood and those without blood as’ Anaima’

Question 4.
Who has developed the five-kingdom classification?
Answer:

  1. R.H. Whittaker proposed the five-kingdom classification.
  2. It is based on cell structure.
  3. Mode of nutrition.
  4. Mode of reproduction.
  5. Phylogenetic relationships.

The kingdoms are

  • Monera
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

Question 5.
What are the special features of frogs that are identified in Western Gauts?
Answer:

  • This frog has shiny purple skin.
  • There is a light blue ring around the eyes.
  • It has a pointy big nose.
  • It’s Zoological name Nasikabatrachus Bhupathi.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 6.
What are the rules to be followed in the nomenclature of organisms?
Answer:
The scientific name should be italicized in printed form and the generic name and specific name should be underlined separately if it is handwritten.

  • The first alphabet of the generic name should be of uppercase.
  • The specific name (species) should be in lower case letters.
  • The name or abbreviated name of the scientist who first published the scientific name may be written after the specific (species) name along with the year of publication, e.g. Felis Leo Linn., 1958.
  • If the specific (species) name is framed after any person’s name, the name of the species shall end with i, ii or ae. e.g. Ground – dwelling lizard Cyrtodactylus varadgiri.

Question 7.
Name some Automated species identification tools or cyber tools.
Answer:
ALIS: Automated Leafhopper Identification System.
DAISY: Digital Automated Identification System.
ABIS: Automatic Bee Identification System.
SPIDA: Species Identified Automatically (spiders, wasp, bee wing characters).
Draw wing: Honey bee wing identification.

 (5 marks)

V. Essay Questions

Question 1.
List the defects of Aristotle’s classification.
Answer:

  • Aristotle’s classification system had limitations and many organisms were not fitting into his classification.
  • The tadpoles of frogs are born in water and have gills but when they metamorphosed into adult frogs they have lungs and can live both in water and on land. There is no answer to this question.
  • Based on locomotion birds bats and flying insects were grouped either just by observing one single characteristic feature the flying ability.
  • On the contrary to the above-said example, the ostrich emu and penguin are all birds but cannot fly. He did not classify them as birds.

Question 2.
What is special about the Domain Archaea?
Answer:

  • This domain includes single-celled organisms the prokaryotes.
  • They have the ability to grow in extreme conditions like volcano vents hot springs and polar ice caps hence are called extremophiles.
  • They are capable of synthesizing their food without sunlight and oxygen by utilizing hydrogen sulphide and other chemicals from the volcanic vents.
  • Some of them produced methane.
  • Few live in salty environments and called Halophiles.
  • Some thrive in acidic environments and are called thormoacidophiles.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 3.
What is special about the domain bacteria?
Answer:

  1. Bacterias are prokaryotic.
  2. They do not have a definite nucleus and do not have histones.
  3. They have circular DNA.
  4. They do not possess membrane-bound organelles except for 70s ribosomes.
  5. Their cell wall contains peptidoglycans.
  6. Many are decomposers. Some are photo-synthesizers and few cause diseases.
  7. There are beneficial probiotic bacteria. (Eg.) Cyanobacteria produce oxygen.

Question 4.
What is the significance of cladistic classification?
Answer:
Cladistic classification takes into account ancestral characters (traits commons for the entire group) and derived characters (traits whose structure and function differ from the ancestral characters). The accumulation of derived characters resulted in the formation of new subspecies.

Question 5.
What are the basic roles to be followed in naming the animals?
Answer:

  • The scientific name should be italicized in printed form and if handwritten it should be underlined separately.
  • The generic name’s first alphabet should be in uppercase.
  • The specific name should be in lower case.
  • The scientific names of any two organisms are not similar.
  • The name of the scientist who first publishes the scientific name may be written after the species name along with the year of publication.
  • (Eg.) Lion – Felis Leo Linn. 1758 (or) Felis Leo L. 1758

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Zoology Guide Chapter 1 The Living World

Question 6.
What are the rules to be followed in the nomenclature of organisms?
Answer:
The scientific name should be italicized in printed form and the generic name and specific name should be underlined separately if it is handwritten.

  • The first alphabet of the generic name should be of uppercase.
  • The specific name (species) should be in lower case letters.
  • The name or abbreviated name of the scientist who first published the scientific name may be written after the specific (species) name along with the year of publication, e.g. Felis Leo Linn., 1958.
  • If the specific (species) name is framed after any person’s name, the name of the species shall end with i, ii, or ae. e.g. Ground – dwelling lizard Cyrtodactylus varadgirii.

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