Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Solutions Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Indian Economy Before and After Independence Text Book Back Questions and Answers

PART – A

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
The arrival of Vasco da Gama in Calicut, India ………………………
(a) 1498
(b) 1948
(c) 1689
(d) 1849
Answer:
(a) 1498

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 2.
In 1614 Sir Thomas Roe was successful in getting permission from ……………………
(a) Akbar
(b) Shajahan
(c) Jahangir
(d) Noorjahan
Answer:
(c) Jahangir

Question 3.
The power for governance of India was transferred from the East India Company (EIC) to the British crown in ………………………..
(a) 1758
(b) 1858
(c) 1958
(d) 1658
Answer:
(b) 1858

Question 4.
Ryotwari system was initially introduced in …………………….
(a) Kerala
(b) Bengal
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Maharashtra
Answer:
(c) Tamil Nadu

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 5.
First World War started in the year ……………………..
(a) 1914
(b) 1814
(c) 1941
(d) 1841
Answer:
(a) 1914

Question 6.
When did the Government of India declared its first Industrial Policy?
(a) 1956
(b) 1991
(c) 1948
(d) 2000
Answer:
(c) 1948

Question 7.
The objective of the Industrial Policy 1956 was ………………………..
(a) Develop heavy industries
(b) Develop agricultural sector only
(c) Develop private sector only
(d) Develop cottage industries only
Answer:
(a) Develop heavy industries

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 8.
The industry which was de-reserved in 1993.
(a) Railways
(b) Mining of copper and zinc
(c) Atomic energy
(d) Atomic minerals
Answer:
(b) Mining of copper and zinc

Question 9.
The father of Green Revolution in India was
(a) M.S. Swaminathan
(b) Gandhi
(c) Visweswaraiah
(d) N.R. Viswanathan
Answer:
(a) M.S. Swaminathan

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 10.
How many commercial banks were nationalised in 1969?
(a) 10
(b) 12
(c) 14
(d) 16
Answer:
(c) 14

Question 11.
The main objective of nationalisation of banks was …………………………
(a) Private social welfare
(b) Social welfare
(c) To earn
(d) Industries monopoly
Answer:
(b) Social welfare

Question 12.
The Planning Commission was setup in the year ………………………….
(a) 1950
(b) 1955
(c) 1960
(d) 1952
Answer:
(a) 1950

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 13.
In the first five year plan, The top priority was given to ……………………… Sector.
(a) Service
(b) Industrial
(c) Agriculture
(d) Bank
Answer:
(c) Agriculture

Question 14.
Tenth Five year plan period was ……………………….
(a) 1992 – 1997
(b) 2002 – 2007
(c) 2007 – 2012
(d) 1997 – 2002
Answer:
(b) 2002 – 2007

Question 15.
According to HDR (2016), India ranked …………………….. out of 188 coutries.
(a) 130
(b) 131
(c) 135
(d) 145
Answer:
(b) 131

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 16.
Annual Plans formed in the year ………………………
(a) 1989 – 1991
(b) 1990 – 1992
(c) 2000 – 2001
(d) 1981 – 1983
Answer:
(b) 1990 – 1992

Question 17.
The Oldest large scale industry in India ………………………
(a) Cotton
(b) Jute
(c) Steel
(d) Cement
Answer:
(a) Cotton

Question 18.
Human Development Index (HDI) was developed by …………………………
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) M.K. Gandhi
(c) Amartiya Sen
(d) Tagore
Answer:
(c) Amartiya Sen

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 19.
The main theme of the Twelth Five Year Plan ………………………..
(a) Faster and more inclusive growth
(b) Growth with social Justice
(c) Socialistic pattern of society
(d) Taster, more inclusive and sustainable growth
Answer:
(d) Taster, more inclusive and sustainable growth

Question 20.
The PQLI was developed by ……………………….
(a) Planning Commission
(b) Nehru
(c) Morris
(d) Morrisd.Biswajeet
Answer:
(c) Morris

PART – B

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences.

Question 21.
What are the Phases of colonial exploitation of India?
Answer:

  1. India was a colony for long time. Colonialism refers to a system of political and social relations between two countries, of which one is the ruler and the other is its colony.
  2. The ruling country not only has political control over the colony, but it also determines the economic policies of the subjugated country.
  3. The people living in a colony cannot take independent decisions in respect of utilisation of the country’s resources and important economic activities.
  4. India had the bitter experience of colonialism.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 22.
Name out the different types of land tenure existed in India before independence?
Answer:
The three different types of land tenure existed in India before independence. They were:

  1. Zamindari System (or) Landlord-Tenant System
  2. Mahalwari System (or) Communal System of farming
  3. Ryotwari System (or) the Owner-Cultivator System

Question 23.
State the features that distinguish a land tenure system from other system?
Answer:

  1. Land Tenure refers to the system of land ownership and management.
  2. The features that distinguish a land tenure system from the others relate to the following:
    • Who owns the land;
    • Who cultivate the land;
    • Who is responsible for paying the land revenue to the government.
  3. Based on these questions,three different types of land tenure existed in India before Independence. They were Zamindari System, Mahalwari System and Ryotwari System.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 24.
List out the weaknesses on Green Revolution?
Answer:
Weaknesses of the Green Revolution:

  1. Indian Agriculture was still a gamble of the monsoons.
  2. This strategy needed heavy investment in seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and water.
  3. The income gap between large, marginal and small farmers had increased. Gap between irrigated and rain fed areas had widened.
  4. Except in Punjab, and to some extent in Haryana, Farm mechanization had created widespread unemployment among agricultural labourers in the rural areas.
  5. Larger chemical use and inorganic materials reduced the soil fertility and spoiled human health. Now organic farming is encouraged.

Question 25.
What are the objectives of Tenth Five Year plan?
Answer:
Tenth Five Year Plan [2002 – 2007]

  1. This plan aimed to double the per capita income of India in the next 10 years.
  2. It aimed to reduce the poverty ratio to 15% by 2012.
  3. Its growth target was 8.0% but it achieved only 7.2%

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 26.
What is the difference between HDI and PQLI?
Answer:

HDI

PQLI

1. The Inclusion of Income. The exclusion of Income
2. Both Physical and financial attributes of development Only the physical aspects of life.

Question 27.
Mention the indicators which are used to calculate HDI?
Answer:
HDI is based on the following three indicators:

  1. Longevity is measured by life expectancy at birth.
  2. Educational attainments.
  3. Standard of living is measured by real GDP per capita [PPP $].

PART – C

Answer the following questions in one paragraph:

Question 28.
Explain about the Period of Merchant Capital?
Answer:

  1. The period of merchant capital was from 1757 to 1813.
  2. The only aim of the East India Company was to earn profit by establishing monopoly trade in the goods with India and the East India’s.
  3. During this period, India had been considered as the best hunting ground for capital by the East Indian company to develop industrial capitalism is Britain.
  4. When Bengal and South India came under political shake of the East India company in 1750s and 1760s, the objective of monopoly trade was fulfilled.
  5. The company administration succeeded in generating huge surpluses which were repatriated to England, and the Indian leaders linked this problem of land revenue with that of the drain.
  6. Above all, the officers of the company were unscrupulous and corrupt.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 29.
The Handicrafts declined in India in British Period. Why?
Answer:

  1. The Indian handicrafts products had a worldwide market.
  2. Indian exports consisted chiefly of hand weaved cotton and silk fabrics, calicoes, artistic wares, wood carving etc.
  3. Through discriminatory tariff policy, the British Government purposefully destroyed the handicrafts.
  4. With the disappearance of nawabs and kings, there was no one to protect Indian handicrafts.
  5. Indian handicraft products could not compete with machine-made products.
  6. The introduction of railways in India increased the domestic market for the British goods.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 30.
Elucidate the different types of land tenure system in colonial India?
Answer:
Land Tenure refers to the system of land ownership and management. The features that distinguish a land tenure system from the others relate to the following:

  • Who owns the land
  • Who cultivates the land.
  • Who is responsible for paying the land revenue to the government.

Based on these questions, three different types of land tenure existed in India before Independence. They were:

  • Zamindari System or the Landlord-Tenant System.
  • Mahalwari System or Communal System of Farming.
  • Ryotwari System or the Owner-Cultivator System.

Zamindari System or the Land lord Tenant System:

  • This system was created by the British East India Company, when in 1793, Lord Cornwallis introduced ‘Permanent Settlement Act’.
  • Under this system the landlord or the Zamindars were declared as the owners of the land and they were responsible to pay the land revenue to the government.
  • The share of the government in total rent collected was fixed as 10/11th, the balance going to the Zamindars as remuneration.

Mahalwari System or Communal System of Farming:

  • After introduction of this system, it was later extended to Madhya Pradesh and Punjab.
  • The ownership of the land was maintained by the collective body usually the villagers which served as a unit of management.
  • They distributed land among the peasants and collected revenue from them and pay it to the state.

Ryotwari System (or) the Owner-Cultivator System:

  • This system was initially introduced in Tamil Nadu and later extended to Maharashtra, Gujarat, Assam, Coorg, East Punjab and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Under this system the ownership rights of use and control of land were held by the tiller himself.
  • There was the direct relationship between owners and tillers. This system was the least oppressive system before Independence.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 31.
State the reasons for nationalization of commercial banks?
Answer:

  1. After Independence, the Government of India adopted planned economic development.
  2. Five year plans came into existence since 1951.
  3. The main objective of the economic planning aimed at social welfare.
  4. Before Independence commercial banks were in the private sector.
  5. These commercial banks failed in helping the Government to achieve social objectives of planning.
  6. Therefore, the government decided to nationalize 14 major commercial banks on 19 July 1969.
  7. In 1980, again the government took over another 6 commercial banks.

Question 32.
Write any three objectives of Industrial Policy 1991?
Answer:

  1. Economic development of a country particularly depends on the process of Industrialisation.
  2. At the time of Independence, India inherited a weak and shallow Industrial base.
  3. Therefore during the post-Independence period, the Government of India took special emphasis on the development of a solid Industrial base.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 33.
Give a note on Twelfth Five Year Plan?
Answer:
Twelfth Five Year Plan [2012 – 2017]

  1. Its main theme is “Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth”.
  2. Its growth rate target is 8%.
  3. The Indian Independence the Five Year Plans of India played a very prominent role in the economic development of the country.
  4. These plans had guided the Government as to how it should utilise scarce resources so that maximum benefits can be gained.
  5. It is worthy to mention here that Indian Government adopted the concept of five year plans from the Russia.

Question 34.
What is PQLI?
Answer:

  1. “PQLI” – means Physical Quality of Life Index [PQLI].
    Morris D Morris developed the Physical Quality of life Index ( PQLI).
  2. The PQLI is a measure to calculate the quality of life (well being of a country) Three indicators are:
    • Life expectancy
    • Infant mortality rate
    • Literacy rate
  3. A scale of each indicator ranges from the number 1 to 100.
  4. Number 1 represents the worst performance by any country.
  5. 100 is the best performance.

PART – D

Answer the following questions in about a page.

Question 35.
Discuss about the Indian economy during British Period?
Answer:

  1. India’s sea route trade to Europe started only after the arrival of Vasco da Gama in Calicut, India on May 20, 1498.
  2. The Portuguese had traded in Goa as early as 1510.
  3. In 1601 the East India Company was chartered, and the English began their first inroads into the Indian ocean.
  4. In 1614 Sir Thomas Roe was successful in getting permission from Jahangir for setting up factories and slowly moved all parts of India.
  5. Hundred years after Battle of Plassey, the rule of the East India Company finally did come to an end.
  6. In 1858, British Parliament passed a law through which the power for governance of India was transferred from the East India Company [EIC] to the British Crown.
  7. Even the transfer of power from the East India Company to the British Crown did not materially alter the situation.
  8. Britain had exploited India over a period of two centuries of its colonial rule.
  9. On the basis of the form of colonial exploitation, economic historians have divided the whole period into three phases:
  10. The period of merchant Capital
  11. The period of Industrial Capital
  12. The period of Finance Capital

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 36.
Explain the role of SSIs in economic development?
Answer:
1. Provide Employment:

  • SSIs use labour intensive techniques. Hence, they provide employment opportunities to a large number of people. Thus, they reduce the unemployment problem to a great extent.
  • SSIs provide employment to artisans, technically qualified persons and professionals, people engaged in traditional arts, people in villages and unorganized sectors.
  • The employment-capital ratio is high for the SSIs.

2. Bring Balanced Regional Development:

  • SSIs promote decentralized development of industries as most of the SSIs are set up in backward and rural areas.
  • They remove regional disparities by industrializing rural and backward areas and bring balanced regional development.
  • They help to reduce the problems of congestion, slums, sanitation and pollution in cities. They are mostly found in outside city limits.
  • They help in improving the standard of living of people residing in suburban and rural areas in India.
  • The entrepreneurial talent is tapped in different regions and the income is also distributed instead of being concentrated in the hands of a few individuals or business families.

3. Help in Mobilization of Local Resources:

  • SSIs help to mobilize and utilize local resources like small savings, entrepreneurial talent etc., of the entrepreneurs, which might otherwise remain idle and unutilized.
  • They pave way for promoting traditional family skills and handicrafts. There is a great demand for handicraft goods in developed countries.
  • They help to improve the growth of local entrepreneurs and self-employed professionals in small towns and villages in India

4. Pave for Optimisation of Capital:

  • SSIs require less capital per unit of output. They provide quick return on investment due to shorter gestation period. The payback period is quite short in SSIs.
  • SSIs function as a stabilizing force by providing high output-capital ratio as well as high employment – capital ratio.
  • They encourage the people living in rural areas and small towns to mobilize savings and channelize them into industrial activities.

5. Promote Exports:

  • SSIs do not require sophisticated machinery. Hence, import the machines from abroad is not necessary. On the other hand, there is a great demand for goods produced by SSIs.
  • Thus they reduce the pressure on the country’s balance of payments. However, with recent past large scale industries are able to borrow large funds with low interest rate and spend large sums on advertisements. Hence SSSs are gradually vanishing.
  • SSIs earn valuable foreign exchange through exports from India.

6. Complement Large Scale Industries:

  • SSIs play a complementary role to large scale sector and support the large scale industries.
  • SSIs provide parts, components, accessories to large scale industries and meet the requirements of large scale industries through setting up units near the large scale units.
  • SSIs serve as ancillaries to large scale units.

7. Meet Consumer Demands:

  • SSIs produce wide range of products required by consumers in India.
  • Hence, they serves as an anti-inflationary force by providing goods of daily use.

8. Develop Entrepreneurship:

  • SSIs help to develop a class of entrepreneurs in the society. They help the job seekers to become job givers.
  • They promote self-employment and spirit of self-reliance in the society.
  • SSIs help to increase the per capita income of India in various ways.
  • They facilitate development of backward areas and weaker sections of the society.
  • SSIs are adept in distributing national income in more efficient and equitable manner among the various participants of the society.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 37.
Explain the objectives of nationalization of commercial bank?
Answer:
The Government of India nationalized the commercial banks to achieve the following objectives:

  1. The main objective of nationalization was to attain social welfare. Sectors such as agriculture, small and village industries were in need of funds for their expansion and further economic development.
  2. Nationalisation of banks helped to curb private monopolies in order to ensure a smooth supply of credit to socially desirable sections.
  3. In India, nearly 70% of population lived in rural areas. Therefore it was needed to encourage the banking habit among the rural population. .
  4. Nationalisation of banks was required to reduce the regional imbalances where the banking facilities were not available.
  5. Before Independence, the numbers of banks were certainly inadequate. After nationalization, new bank branches were opened in both rural and urban areas.
  6. Banks created credit facilities mainly to the agriculture sector and its allied activities after nationalization.
    After New Economic Policy 1991, the Indian banking Industry has been facing the new horizons of competitions, efficiency and productivity.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 38.
Describe the performance of 12th Five Year Plans in India?
Answer:
First Five Year Plan – [1951 – 1956]

  • It was based on the Harrod-Domar Model.
  • Its main focus was on the agricultural development of the country.
  • This plan was successful and achieved the GDP growth rate of 3.6%. [more than its target]

Second Five Year Plan – [1956 -1961]

  • It was based on the P.C. Mahalanobis Model.
  • Its main focus was on the industrial development of the country.
  • This plan was successful and achieved growth rate of 4.1%

Third Five Year Plan – [1961- 1966]

  • This plan was called ‘Gadgil Yojana’.
  • The main target of this plan was to make the economy independent and to reach self prpalled position or take off.
  • Due to Indo-China war, this plan could not achieve its growth target of 5.6%. Indian Economy Before and After Independence 137

Fourth Five Year Plan – [1969 – 1974]

  • There are two main objectives of this plan (i.e) growth with stability and progressive achievement of self reliance.
  • This plan failed and could achieve growth rate of 3.3% only against the target of 5.7%.

Fifth Five Year Plan – [1974 – 1979]

  • In this plan top priority was given to agriculture, next came industry and mines.
  • This plan achieved the growth rate of 4.8% against the target of 4.4%.

Sixth Five Year Plan – [1980 -1985]

  • The basic objective of this plan was poverty eradication and technological self reliance. GARIBI-HATAO was the motto. It was based on investment yojana.
  • Its growth target was 5.2% but it achieved 5.7%

Seventh Five Year Plan – [1985 – 1990]

  • This plan included the establishment of the self sufficient economy, opportunities for productive employment.
  • For the first time, due to the pressure from private sector, the private sector got the priority over public sector.
  • Its growth target was 5.0% but it achieved 6.0%

Eighth Five Year Plan – [1992- 1997]

  • In this plan the top priority was given to development of the human resources (i.e) employment, education and public health.
  • During this plan, New Economic Policy of India was introduced.
  • This plan was successful and got annual growth rate of 6.8% against the target of 5.6%.

Ninth Five Year Plan – [1997 – 2002]

  • The main focus of this plan was “growth with justice and equity”.
  • This plan failed to achieve the growth target of 7% and Indian economy grew only at the rate of 5.6%.

Tenth Five Year Plan – [2002 – 2007]

  • This plan aimed to double the per capita income of India in the next 10 years.
  • It aimed to reduce the poverty ratio of 15% by 2012.
  • Its growth target was 8.0% but it achieved only 7.2%

Eleventh Five Year Plan – [2007 – 2012]

  • Its main theme was “faster and more inclusive growth”.
  • Its growth rate target was 8.1% but it achieved only 7.9%

Twelfth Five Year Plan – [2012 – 2017]

  • Its main theme is “faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth”.
  • Its growth rate target is 8%
  • Since the Indian Independence the five year plans of India played a very prominent role in the economic development of the country.

These plans had guided the Government as to how it should utilise scarce resources so that maximum benefits can be gained. It is worthy to mention here that Indian Government adopted the concept of five year plans from Russia.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Indian Economy Before and After Independence Additional Important Questions and Answers

PART – A

Multiple Choice Questions:

Question 1.
……………………… is the backbone of our economic system.
(a) Agriculture
(b) Industry
(c) Service
(d) Banking
Answer:
(a) Agriculture

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 2.
Disguised unemployment is related with sector.
(a) Industry
(b) Service
(c) Agriculture
(d) Insurance
Answer:
(c) Agriculture

Question 3.
India’s major ……………………. crops are sugarcane, jute, cotton, tea, coffee etc.
(a) Food
(b) Cash
(c) Marketing
(d) Commercial
Answer:
(b) Cash

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 4.
Most modem and rich countries have well developed through their early ………………………… revolution.
(a) Agriculture
(b) Industrial
(c) French
(d) Green
Answer:
(b) Industrial

Question 5.
The income elasticity of Industrial goods is very higher than that of ………………………… goods.
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c) Industrial
(d) Manufacturing.
Answer:
(a) Primary

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 6.
Which of the following is called as an important agro-based Industry?
(a) Steel
(b) Cement
(c) Sugar
(d) Jute
Answer:
(c) Sugar

Question 7.
……………………… Industries normally do not use power.
(a) Small scale
(b) Large scale
(c) Cottage
(d) Manufacturing
Answer:
(c) Cottage

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 8.
Planning is India is ……………………..
(a) Centralized planning
(b) Democratic planning
(c) Partial planning
(d) Indicative planning
Answer:
(b) Democratic planning

Question 9.
The rate of ………………………. formation indicates its rate of improvement.
(a) Human capital
(b) Money capital
(c) Physical capital
(d) Monetary capital
Answer:
(a) Human capital

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 10.
Now-a-days investment in ……………………… capital is very important.
(a) Money
(b) Physical
(c) Monetary
(d) Human
Answer:
(d) Human

PART – B

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences.

Question 1.
Define “Green Revolution”?
Answer:

  1. The term Green Revolution refers to the technological breakthrough in of agricultural practices.
  2. During 1960’s the traditional agricultural practices were gradually replaced by modem technology and agricultural practices in India.
  3. Initially the new technology was tried in 1960 – 1961 as a pilot project in Seven districts.
  4. It was called as the High Yielding Varieties Programme [HYVP].

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 2.
Define “Silk Industry”?
Answer:

  1. India is the Second largest [first being China] country in the world in producing natural silk.
  2. At present, India produces about 16% silk of the world.
  3. India enjoys the distinction of being the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk viz Mulberry, Tropical Tussar, Oak Tussar, Eri and Muga.

Question 3.
When did the petroleum and natural gas commission was established?
Answer:

  1. First successful oil well was dug in India in 1889 at Digboi, Assam.
  2. At present a number of regions with oil reserves have been identified and oil is being extracted in these regions.
  3. For exploration purpose, Oil and Natural Gas Commission [ONGC] was established in 1956 at Dehradun, Uttarkhand.

PART – C

Answer the following questions in one paragraph:

Question 1.
Explain about the the Micro, Small and Medium manufacturing Enterprises?
Answer:

  1. Micro Manufacturing Enterprises: The investment in plant and machinery does not exceed ₹25 lakhs.
  2. Small Manufacturing Enterprises: The investment in plant and machinery is more than twenty five lakh mpees but does not exceed ₹5 crores.
  3. Medium Manufacturing Enterprises: The investment in plant and machinery is more than ₹5 crores but not exceeding ₹10 crores.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 2.
Describe the Micro, Small and medium service enterprises?
Answer:

  1. Micro Service Enterprises: The investment in equipment does not exceed ₹10 lakhs.
  2. Small Service Industries: The investment in equipment is more than ₹10 lakhs but does not exceed ₹2 crores.
  3. Medium Service Enterprise: The investment in equipment is more than ₹2 crores but does not exceed ₹5 crores.

Question 3.
Explain about the Iron and Steel Industry?
Answer:
Iron and Steel Industry:

  1. First Steel Industry at Kulti, near Jharia, West Bengal – Bengal iron works company in 1870.
  2. First large scale steel plant TISCO at Jamshedpur in 1907 followed by IISCO at Bumpur in 1919. Both belonged to private sector.
  3. The first public sector unit was “Vishveshvaraya Iron and Steel Works” at Bhadrawati. All these are managed by SAIL (at present all important steel plants except TISCO, are under public sector).
  4. Steel Authority of India Ltd. [SAIL] was established in 1974 and was made responsible for the development of the steel industry.
  5. Presently India is the eighth largest steel producing country in the world.

PART – D

Answer the following questions in about a page.

Question 1.
Describe the Achievement of the Green Revolution?
Answer:
Achievement of the Green Revolution:

  1. The major achievement of the new strategy was to boost the production of major cereals viz., wheat and rice.
  2. The Green Revolution was confined only to High Yielding Varieties [HYV-] cereals, mainly rice, wheat, maize and jowar.
  3. This strategy was mainly directed to increase the production of commercial crops or cash crops such as sugarcane, cotton, jute oilseeds and potatoes.
  4. Per hectare productivity of all crops had increased due to better seeds.
  5. Green Revolution had positive effect on development of Industries, which manufactured agricultural tools like tractors, engines, threshers and pumping sets.
  6. Green Revolution had bought prosperity to rural people.
  7. Increased production had generated employment opportunities for rural masses.
  8. Due to this, their standard of living had increased.
  9. Due to multiple cropping and more use of chemical fertilizers, the demand for labour increased.
  10. Financial resources were provided by banks and co-operative societies.
  11. These banks provided loans to farmer on easy terms.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 2.
Explain the problems of British Rule?
Answer:
Problems of British Rule

  1. The British rule stunted the growth of Indian enterprise.
  2. The economic policies of British checked and retarded capital formation in India.
  3. The drain of wealth financed capital development in Britain.
  4. Indian agricultural sector became stagnant and deteriorated even when a large section of Indian population was dependent on agriculture for subsistence.
  5. The British rule in India led the collapse of handicraft industries without making any significant contribution to development of any modem industrial base.
  6. Some efforts by the colonial British regime in developing the plantations, mines, jute mills, banking and shipping, mainly promoted a system of capitalist firms that were managed by foreigners. These profit motives led to further drain of resources from India.

ACTIVITY

Question 1.
To know the value of freedom, students can collect pictures of places like Jallianwala Bagh, Meerut, Thandi and photos of freedom lighters?
Answer:
The Jallianwalabagh Massacre in Amritsar

  1. Jallianwala Bagh is one of the main tourist attractions around the Amritsar.
  2. The tourists as well as the neighboring people visited here.
  3. Jallianwala bagh is situated at a throw away distance from the Golden temple, famous tourist spot in the Ami’rtsar.
  4. Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar is a good looking garden and contains a sikh spiritual shrine.
  5. Jallianwala Bagh history was a well – liked ground for holding meetings and protests during the freedom movement in India.
  6. The massacre memorial one of the monument in India was inaugurated on 13th April in 1961.
  7. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the president of India, inaugurated the memorial in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar at that time.
  8. The Bagh has a well that is also fine cosseted by the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre memorial.
  9. Jallianwala Bagh is connected with the most tragedy day in the history of Indian Freedom.
  10. Jallianwala Bagh is a large garden like space extended over to an area of 6.5 acres and and the most noticeable structure in this place is the memorial of the 1919 massacre victims.
  11. One can also witness the wall with gunshot marks.
  12. Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust administrates the activities of this place.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:

  1. Jallianwala Bagh reminds us about the great tragedy and it evokes nationalistic feeling in every Indian.
  2. It is the place where the crudest massacre in the history of Indian freedom fight took place in the year 1919.
  3. To offer tribute to the innocent people who died in the massacre, this place was built at the spot of the horrible event.
  4. On 13 th April 1919, a large crowd gathered to protect the take into custody of two Indian Freedom leaders.
  5. The crowd was defenseless and included women as well as children.
  6. The British General, Edward Dyer ordered his soldiers to fire on the unarmed and helpless crowd.
  7. Continuous firing went on targeting the crowd while the people were trapped inside the Jallianwala Bagh, which had only one narrow gate.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence img 1

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Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence

Question 2.
Display the demonstration effect of present Indians in culture, dressing and life style to emphasize the Swadhesi?
Answer:
Swadeshi Movement was popular strategy for eradicating the British rule and for improving the economic conditions of the country.

Mahatma Gandhi:

  1. The concept of swadeshi, as per Mahatma Gandhi was to attain self sufficiency which included employment of unemployed people by encouraging village Industries and towards building a non-violent society.
  2. The main policies of the swadeshi movement included boycotting all types of British products and the restoration of all domestic products.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence img 3

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence img 4

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Economics Guide Chapter 8 Indian Economy Before and After Independence img 5

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Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin chandra pal. [Bal, Lai, Pal].

  1. The chief forerunners of swadeshi movement were Bal, Lai. Pal.
  2. The writings and speeches of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and his associates paved the initial way.
  3. Tilak reaches out to the masses through popular festivals.
  4. He transformed the traditional Ganapathi utsav into a public celebration where patriotic ideas could be spread.
  5. Later he inaugurated a Shivaji festival for the same purpose.
  6. In 1906, Bengal honoured the great Maratha as a national hero.

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