Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Question, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
India has adapted the electoral system followed in the ___________
(a) USA
(b) United Kingdom
(c) Canada
(d) Russia
Answer:
(b) United Kingdom

Question 2.
The Election Commission of India is a / an ___________
(a) Independent body
(b) Statutory body
(c) Private body
(d) Public corporation
Answer:
(a) Independent body

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 3.
Which Article of the Constitution provides for an Election Commission?
(a) Article 280
(b) Article 315
(c) Article 324
(d) Article 325
Answer:
(c) Article 324

Question 4.
Which part of the constitution of India says about the election commission?
(a) Part III
(b) Part XV
(c) Part XX
(d) Part XXII
Answer:
(b) Part XV

Question 5.
Who accords recognition to various political parties as national or regional parties?
(a) The President
(b) The Election Commission
(c) The Parliament
(d) The President in consultation with the Election Commission
Answer:
(b) The Election Commission

Question 6.
Assertion (A): Indian Constitution provides for an independent Election Commission
Reason (R): To ensure free and fair elections in the country.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 7.
NOTA was introduced in the year ___________
(a) 2012
(b) 2013
(c) 2014
(d) 2015
Answer:
(c) 2014

Question 8.
The term pressure group original in _______
(a) USA
(b) UK
(c) USSR
(d) India
Answer:
(a) USA

Question 9.
Assertion (A): A large number of pressure groups exist in Tndia.
Reason (R): Pressure Groups are not developed in India to the same extent as in the USA
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. The Election Commission of India is a body of ______ members.
  2. National Voters day has been celebrated on _______
  3. In India _____ party system is followed.
  4. In 2017, there were _____ recognised national parties.
  5. Narmada Bachao Andolan is a ______

Answer:

  1. Three
  2. 25th january
  3. Multi
  4. Seven
  5. Pressure Group

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

III. Match the following

  1. National party – a. Trade union
  2. Single-party system – b. USA
  3. Two-party system – c. China
  4. Pressure groups – d . Seven

Answer:

  1. – (d)
  2. – (c)
  3. – (b)
  4. – (a)

IV. Give short answers

Question 1.
Explain the electoral system in India.
Answer:

  1. The Electoral system in India is borrowed from the one operating systems in Great Britain.
  2. The constitution (Article 324) provides for an independent Election Commission in order to ensure free and fair elections in the country.
  3. Parliament may make provisions with respect to all matters relating to election in the Parliament and the state Legislatives.
  4. The State Legislatives can also make provisions with respect to all matters relating to elections to the State Legislative. But they can only supplement the parliamentary law.

Question 2.
Give the meaning of a political party.
Answer:

  1. A political party is a group of people who come together to contest election and hold power in the government.
  2. A political party has three components: a leader, active member and the followers.

Question 3.
Distinguish between two-party system and the multi-party system. Ans:
Answer:
Bi Party system:

  1. Two party system in which two major parties exist.
  2. Eg. USA, UK

Multi party system:

  1. Multi party system in which there are more than two political parties
  2. Eg. India, Sri Lanka, France, Italy.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 4.
What is a pressure group?
Answer:

  1. The term ‘Pressure group’ originated in the USA.
  2.  A pressure group is a group of people who are organised actively for promoting and defending their common interest.
  3. It is so called, as it attempts to bring a change in the public policy by exerting pressure on
    the government.

V. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Discuss merits and demerits of direct elections.
Answer:
Merits of Direct elections:

  1. As the voters elect their representatives directly, direct elections are considered to be a more democratic method of election.
  2. It educates people regarding the government activities and helps in choosing the appropriate candidates. Also, it encourages people to play an active role in politics.
  3. It empowers people and makes the rulers accountable for their actions.

Demerits of Direct elections:

  1. Direct elections are very expensive.
  2. Illiterate voters sometimes get misguided by false propaganda and sometimes campaigning based on caste, religious and various other sectarian consideration pose serious challenges.
  3. Since conducting direct elections is a massive exercise, ensuring free and fair elections at every polling station is a major challenge to the Election Commission.
  4. There are instances of some political candidates influencing the voters through payments in the form of cash, goods or services.
  5. Election campaigns sometimes results in violence, tension, law and order problems and affects the day-to-day life of people.

Question 2.
What are the functions of political parties?
Answer:

  1. Parties contest elections. In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties.
  2. Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them.
  3. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature.
  4. Parties form and run the governments.
  5. Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticising the government for its failures and wrong policies. Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues.
  6. Parties function as the useful link between people and the government machinery.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 3.
What are the function of Pressure groups in India?
Answer:
Pressure groups carry out a range of functions including Representation, Political Participation, Education, Policy formulation and Policy implementation.

(a) Representation
Pressure groups provide an alternative to the formal representative process or the functional representation by providing mouth piece for groups and interests that are not adequately represented through, the electoral process or by political parties.

(b) Political Participation

  1. Pressure groups can be called the informal face of politics.
  2. They exert influence precisely by mobilizing popular support through activities such as petitions, marches, demonstrations and other forms of political protest.
  3. Such forms of political participation have been particularly attractive to young people.

(c) Education
Many pressure groups devote significant resources by carrying out research, maintaining web sites, commenting on government policy and using high – profile academics, scientists and even celebrities to get their views across, with an emphasis to cultivate expert authority.

(d) Policy Formulation:

  1. Though the pressure groups themselves are not policy-makers, yet this does not prevent many of them from participating in the policy-making process.
  2. Many Pressure groups are vital sources of information and render advice to the government and therefore they are regularly consulted in the process of policy formulation

(e) Policy Implementation

  1. Occasionally pressure groups implement policy or play a role in it.
  2. A good example is blue cross which helps the government in protecting animal welfare

VI. Project and Activity

Question 1.
Compare the policies, programmes and achievements of a national party and a state party.
Answer:
Activity to be done by the students themselves

VII. Hots

Question 1.
“Elections are considered essential for any representative democracy”. Why?
Answer:

  1. Democracy is defined as a government of the people, for the people and by the people.
  2. India which is the largest democracy in the world in terms of vastness and population government both at the centre and in the constituent states are elected for five year terms.
  3. The electorate of so many crores of people in this sub continent participate in the election, held on the basis of universal adult franchise.
  4. They send their representatives to both the Parliament and the State Legislatives expecting that these representatives will safeguard their interests.
  5. And they believe that these representatives will work to attain the goal of progress, prosperity, unity and integrity of India.
  6. When people exercise their franchise, constitute the real source of power in the elections as they make their choice and elect only those in whom they have faith.

Question 2.
What is the principle of universal adult franchise? What is its importance?
Answer:

  1. Universal adult franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adult citizens (18 years and above) without the discrimination of caste, class, colours, religion or gender. It is based on equality, which is the basic principle of democracy.
  2. Under this system a government is elected that it is accountable to the people it governs.
  3. Because every vote counts, issues in a society receive their appropriate weight in terms of importance and urgency.
  4. Indian Constitution Article 326″mentions about the Elections to the House of the people and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.

Question 3.
Discuss merits and demerits of democracy.
Answer:
Merits of democracy:

  1. Chief merit of democracy is t&at it safeguards the intersects of the people. Real power lies in the hands of people.
  2. Democracy is based on the principle of equality. All members of the state are equal in the eyes of law.
  3. Democracy is known for its stability, firmness and efficiency. The administration is conducted with a sense of responsibility.
  4. Democracy serves as a training school for citizens. People get importance to take part in the affairs of the state.
  5. Since democracy is based on public will, there is no chance of public revolt.
  6. It is more stable than the other forms of government.
  7. Democracy creates proper environment for the development of personality and cultivating good habits.
  8. Democracy is based on public opinion.

Demerits of democracy:

  1. It is not based on the quality but on quantity. Maj ority party holds the reigns of government inefficient and corrupt persons get themselves elected.
  2. Democracies are run by incompetent persons. A few are intelligent. But universal Adult Franchise grants right to vote to every body.
  3. The concept of Equality is enshrined in democracy. It is against the law of nature. Individual’s talents differ.
  4. Voters do not cast their votes in a spirit of duty as democracy requires them to be.
  5. In order to win the elections, the candidates employ underhand practices and unethical ways are adopted.
  6. Modem democracy in the role of capitalists. The rich candidates purchase votes.
  7. Democracy is a huge waste of time and resources. A lot of money is spent during elections.
  8. When no party gets absolute majority, a coalition government is formed. In case of clash of interests among the parties in the coalition government, the government crumble down.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 4.
Discuss the multi-party system.
Answer:

  1. A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political ’ spectrum run for national election. All have the capacity to gain control of government
    offices, separately or in a coalition.
  2. Multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems and presidential systems. Here the representation is proportional.
  3. In multi-party system there may be greater voter participation in election because people can usually identify with at best one political party that shares their views and goals.
  4. In India, multi-party system suits to express the views of people in decision-making process.
  5. It offers a greater as well as better choice to people among the candidates.
  6. At the same time, this system makes Indian politics unstable and weak.
  7. The best is to have a multiple party system consisting of a central party, a left wing party and a right wing party to prevent formation of coalition, which are against nation’s interest.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the best answer

Question 1.
Kudavolai was the system of voting followed during the time of __________
(a) Cheras
(b) Cholas
(c) Pandyas
(d) Pallavas
Answer:
(b) Cholas

Question 2.
The National Voters Day is _________
(a) December 31st
(b) January 25th
(c) November 23rd
(d) April 10th
Answer:
(b) January 25th

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 3.
Bi Party system exists in _________
(a) Italy
(b) USA
(c) Cuba
(d) China
Answer:
(a) Italy

Question 4.
The leader of the ________ occupies a prominent place in a democracy
(a) Multi party
(b) Bi party
(c) Opposition party
(d) National party
Answer:
(c) Opposition party

Question 5.
The Pressure groups are also called ________ groups.
(a) business
(b) linguistic
(c) professional
(d) interest
Answer:
(d) interest

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. The constitution provides for an independent _____ to ensure free and fair elections in the country
  2. The National Voters Day started from ______
  3. NOTA was introduced in the General Election in
  4. Direct elections are very _____
  5. Indirect elections are more sirted to _____ Countries.
  6. State parties are otherwise known as ______ parties
  7. Political parties shape _____

Answer:

  1. Election Commission
  2. January 25th, 2011
  3. 2014
  4. Expensive
  5. Large
  6. Regional
  7. Public opinion

II. Match the following

Question 1.

  1. LokSabha – (i) MLA
  2. Legislative Assembly – (ii) Corporation
  3. Local governing Body – (iii) Delhi
  4. National Capital Territory – (iv) MP

Answer:

  1. – (iv)
  2. – (i)
  3. – (ii)
  4. – (iii)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 2.

  1. Pressure groups – (i) 2006
  2. Polio – (ii) Animal welfare
  3. Six National Parties – (iii) Vested groups
  4. Blue cross – (iv) Immunization

Answer:

  1. – (iii)
  2. – (iv)
  3. – (i)
  4. – (ii)

IV. Give short answers

Question 1.
What is NOTA?
Answer:

  1. If the people in a democratic country are not willing to elect any candidate, they can vote for the option called NOTA (None of the Above)
  2. Rule 49 – O in the conduct ofElection Rules, 1961 of India describes this procedure.
  3. NOTA was introduced in the General Elections in 2014
  4. India is the 14th country to introduce NOTA

Question 2.
What is VVPAT?
Answer:

  1. VVPAT – Voters Verified Paper Audit Trail is the way forward to enhance credibility and transprency of the election process.
  2. This system was first introduced in 2014 General Election

Question 3.
Bring out the merits and demerits of indirect elections.
Answer:
(a) Merits

  1. Indirect elections are less expensive.
  2. It is more suited to elections in large countries. .

(b) Demerits

  1. If the number of Voters are very small, there exits possibility of corruption, bribery, horse trading etc.
  2. It is less democratic because people do not have direct opportunity to elect, but they instead do it through their representatives.
  3. So, this may not reflect the true will of the people.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 4.
How is the President of India elected?
Answer:
The President of India is elected by the member of an Electoral college consisting of a) the elected members of both houses of parliament and b) the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the states.

Question 5.
What are National Parties?
Answer:

  1. Aparty which is recognized as a state party in at least four states is recognized as a National Party.
  2. Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission while the commission treats all parties equally it offers some special facilities to State and National parties.
  3. These parties are given a unique symbol
  4. Only the official candidate of the party can use that election symbol
  5. In 2016, there were seven national recognized parties.

Question 6.
Explain the types of Political parties with the help of a diagram. Ans: Political parties
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 7.
What are State parties?
Answer:

  1. Most of the major parties of the country are classified by the Election Commission as State Parties.
  2. These are commonly referred to as regional parties.
  3. A party is recognised as a state party by the Election commission of India based on certain percentage of votes secured or a certain number of seats won with Assembly or Lok Sabha Elections

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 8.
How are the parties recognised at National level?
Answer:
For getting recognition as ‘National Party’, a party has to fulfill any one of the following criteria.

  1. At least 6% votes in at least four states and members to the Lok Sabha.
  2. In the election of Lok Sabha at least 2% members from at least 3 states are elected to Lok Sabha.
  3. Recognition as state party at least four states.

V. Answer in detail

Question 1.
What is the role of opposition parties in a Democratic government.
Answer:

  1. In a democracy there may be a two party system like in USA or Multiparty system like in India and France.
  2. The Ruling party may have received the mandate of the majority people, the opposition party represent the remaining people.
  3. The leader of the opposition party occupies a prominent place in all democratic form of government.
  4. He enjoys the rank of a Cabinet Minister.
  5. He opposes the wrong policy of the Ruling party which affects the general public.
  6. The Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee questions the functioning of the government and examines the public money used for the well being of the people.
  7. Similarly he plays an important role to select the Chairman and members of the CVC, Chairperson and members of the Information Commission.
  8. The Opposition Parties reflect genuine demands/concem of the people to play in constructive role in democracy.

Question 2.
Discuss the various pressure groups in India.
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

  1. A large member of pressure groups exist in India Types of Actions
  2. But they are not developed to the same extent as in USA or the Western countries like Britain, France, Germany and so on
  3. The pressure groups in India can be broadly classified into the following categories
  4. These groups are
    1. Business groups
    2. Trade Unions
    3. Agrarian groups
    4. Professional associations
    5. Student organisations
    6. Religious organisations
    7. Tribal organisations
    8. Linguistic groups
    9. Ideology based groups and
    10. Environmental Protection groups.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 3.
Explain the term mobilization in a democratic country.
Answer:

  1. It is essential in any country to get people’s support and co – operation for collective action.
  2. This is especially time in developing countries engaged in developing new systems of administration and modes of economic and political action.
  3. Mobilizing people towards socially productive activities that lead to the overall betterment of people’s lives in essential,
  4. Sometimes earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and other such natural disasters on a massive scale occur and people’s immediate mobilisation for evacuation and emergency relief become most essential.

VI. Hots

Question 1.
Do you feel democracy is successful in India? Give reasons.
Answer:
Working of democracy in India can be analysed on two forms: (a) institutional and (b) substantive

(a) institutional:

  1. India forms well on the institutional front of democracy.
  2. There have been peaceful transfer of power after elections,
  3. Elections have been held in free and fair manner and reforms are introduced from time to time.

(b) substantive

  1. On the substantive front of democracy, the result has been mixed
  2. India has been able to lift a considerable quantum of rising population out of poverty, lower social evils, improve employment rates, improve maternal mortality, in fast mortality rates.
  3. Yet India continues to face caste based discrimination, unrest, militancy in Kashmir and North east, poor access to health care, formal jobs, higher education etc.

(c) Sentense

  1. Thus it can be said that while Indian democracy is largely a success, grave challenges that need to be tackled in fast and effective manner.

VII. Re arrange the Jumbled words

Question 1.

  1. AICNPMGA
  2. OERLCETLA
  3. NTSOCUONITTI
  4. INOTPSOIPO
  5. GOLENRAI

Answer:

  1. CAMPAIGN
  2. ELECTORAL
  3. CONSTITUTION
  4. OPPOSITION
  5. REGIONAL

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Civics Chapter 2 Election, Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Question 2.

  1. CPLOITLAI
  2. TPYRA
  3. EPRNTENTEOISAR
  4. OENLCISET
  5. MSLOYB

Answer:

  1. POLITICAL
  2. PARTY
  3. REPRESENTATION
  4. ELECTIONS
  5. SYMBOL

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