Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

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Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science The Age of Revolutions Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
The first British colony in America was __________
(a) New York
(b) Philadelphia
(c) Jamestown
(d) Amsterdam
Answer:
(c) Jamestown

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 2.
The pioneer of French Revolution who fought on the side of Washington against the British was _____
(a) Mirabeau
(b) Lafayette
(c) Napoleon
(d) Danton
Answer:
(b) Lafayette

Question 3.
Lafayette, Thomas Jefferson and Mirabeau wrote the __________
a) Declaration of Independence
b) Declaration of Pilnitz
c) Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
d) Human Rights Charter
Answer:
(c) Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

Question 4.
The defeat of British at _____ paved the way for the friendship between France and America.
(a) Trenton
(b) Saratoga
(c) Pennsylvania
(d) New York
Answer:
(b) Saratoga

Question 5.
___________ was the symbol of “Royal Despotism” in France.
(a) Versailles Palace
(b) Prison of Bastille
(c) Paris Commune
(d) Estates General
Answer:
(a) Versailles Palace

Question 6.
The forces of Austria and Prussia were defeated by the French Revolutionary forces at ___________
(a) Vema
(b) Versailles
(c) Pilnitz
(d) Valmy
Answer:
(d) Valmy

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 7.
Candide was written by ___________
(a) Voltaire
(b) Rousseau
(c) Montesquieu
(d) Danton
Answer:
(a) Voltaire

Question 8.
The moderate liberals who wanted to retain Louis XVI as a limited monarchy were called ______
(a) Girondins
(b) Jacobins
(c) Emigres
(d) Royalists
Answer:
(a) Girondins

Question 9.
American War of Independence was ended with the Peace of Paris in the year _______
(a) 1776
(b) 1779
(c) 1781
(d) 1783
Answer:
(d) 1783

Question 10.
Thomas Paine’s famous pamphlet was ___________
(a) Common Sense
(b) Rights of man
(c) Bill of Rights
(d) Aboltions of Slavery
Answer:
(a) Common Sense

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. The Postmaster General of the Postal Department of the government of Continental Congress was ___________
  2. The battle of Bunker Hill was fought on ___________
  3. The ___________ Act insisted on repaying the debt in gold or silver.
  4. The leader of National Assembly of France was ___________
  5. ___________ was guillotined for organizing a Festival of Liberty.
  6. Louis XVI was arrested at ___________ with his family when he tried to escape from France.

Answer:

  1. Benjamin Franklin
  2. 17th June 1775
  3. Currency
  4. Mirabeau
  5. Herbert
  6. Varennes

III. Choose the correct statement:

Question 1.
(i) The Portuguese were the pioneers of naval expeditions.
(ii) New Plymouth was named after the Quaker Penn.
(iii) Quakers have the reputation of encouraging wars.
(iv) The English changed the name of New Amsterdam to New York.
(a) (i) & (ii) are correct
(b) (iii) is correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (i) & (iv) are correct
Answer:
(c) (iv) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 2.
(i) The American War of Independence was as much a civil war as a war against the
British.
(ii) The British forces emerged victorious in York Town.
(iii) The nobles in France were supportive of the rising middle class.
(iv) The British Parliament repealed the Townshend Act except the tax on paper.
(a) (i) & (ii) are correct
(b) (iii) is correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (i) & (iv) are correct
Answer:
(i) is correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): Merchants of Boston boycotted the British goods
Reason (R): The British Finance Minister introduced new duties on imports into
American colonies
(a) A is correct and R is not the explanation of A
(b) A is incorrect and R is not the explanation of A
(c) A is correct and R is the explanation of A
(d) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are incorrect
Answer:
(c) A is correct and R is the explanation of A

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 4.
Assertion (A): There was a massive peasant revolt in the Vendee against conscriptions.
Reason (R): The peasants as supporters of the king did not like to fight against him.
(a) Both A and R are incorrect
(b) Both A and R are correct
(c) A is correct and R is incorrect
(d) A is incorrect and R is correct
Answer:
(c) A is correct and R is incorrect

IV. Match the following:

  1. John Winthrop – (i) France Finance Minister
  2. Turgot – (ii) July 4
  3. The Spirit of laws – (iii) Britain and France
  4. Marie Antoinette – (iv) Massachusetts Bay
  5. Seven years war – (v) Louis XVI
  6. American Independence Day – (vi) Montesquieu

Answer:

  1. – (iv)
  2. – (i)
  3. – (vi)
  4. – (v)
  5. – (iii)
  6. – (ii)

V. Answer the following questions briefly:

Question 1.
Who were Puritans? Why did they leave England?
Answer:

  1. Puritans had a religions movement to reform the church of England.
  2. They dispensed with the teachings and practices of Roman Catholic Church.
  3. Since the Stuart kings ordered the persecution of Puritans, they left England and settled in the colonies they founded to lead a Puritan way of life.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 2.
What do you know about the Quakers?
Answer:

  1. Quakers were members of a Christian group called the Society of Friends.
  2. They laid emphasis on the Holy Spirit, and rejected outward rites and an ordained ministry.
  3. George Fox was the founder of the society in England.
  4. Quakers worked for peace and opposing war.

Question 3.
Point out the significance of “the Boston Tea Party”.
Answer:

  1. In many places the colonists obstructed the import of tea.
  2. In Charlestown, they unloaded the tea and let it rot the dock.
  3. In New York and Philadelphia ships carrying tea were blocked.
  4. In December 1773, a group of men disguised themselves as Native Americans boarded the cargo vessels and threw the tea overboard.
  5. This incident, done publicly before a large sympathetic crowd, was signified as Boston Tea Party.

Question 4.
Attempt an account of “September Massacres”
Answer:

  1. In 1792, when foreign armies advanced into French territory and defeated the French troops, the Commune of Paris suspected the treachery of the king and his supporters.
  2. The Commune of Paris enforced martial law and attacked the king’s palace.
  3. When the king ordered shooting by his Swiss guards, the people of Paris hunted down the supporters of monarchy under their leader Marat.
  4. In three days, from September 2, about 1500 suspected dissidents were put in prison. After a trial, they were killed and this incident is called “September Massacres.”

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 5.
Explain the composition of “Three Estates of France”.
Answer:
(i) The Estates General consisted of the representatives of three classes or estates as they were called.
(ii) They were

  • clergy (men and women ordained for religious duties)
  • the nobles
  • the commoners (comprising lawyers, rich merchants, bankers and businessmen and wealthy land-owners).

Question 6.
Sketch the role of Lafayette in the French Revolution.
Answer:

  1. Lafayette, fought the British on Washington’s side through to the conclusive battle at Yorktown in 1781.
  2. During the French Revolution he served the French National Guard as its Commander.
  3. He penned the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, with the help of Jefferson.
  4. This was adopted on August 27, 1789 by the National Assembly.

Question 7.
What was the background for the storming of Bastille Prison?
Answer:

  1. When the Tennis-Court oath incident took place, the king tried to use force to disperse the commoners.
  2. When his own soldiers refused to obey his orders, foreign regiments were brought in.
  3. This provoked the people to rise in revolt in Paris on 14th July 1789.
  4. They stormed the Bastille prison and set-free all the prisoners.
  5. The fall of the Bastille was the first great turning point in the revolution. 14th July is celebrated as the National Day of France to this day.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 8.
What were the taxes the peasants had to pay in France on the eve of Revolution?
Answer:

  1. The common people paid the – one tenth of the annual produce or earnings.
  2. The peasants paid taxes to the state such as Taille (land tax), Gabelle (salt tax), etc., and provided free labour (corvee) for the construction of public roads.

VI. Answer the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
TownshendAct
(a) Who introduced this Act?
(b) In which year was this Act passed?
(c) Why did the colonists oppose the Act?
(d) Why did the merchants of Boston oppose British goods?
Answer:
(a) The British Finance Minister Charles Townshend introduced the Townshend Act.
(b) In 1767 it was introduced.
(c) Since the Townshend Act introduced duties on imports to colonies such as glass, paper, paint, lead and tea, the colonists opposed the Act.
(d) When the Townshend Act was repeated retaining tax on tea, it harmed the local tea trade. Hence the merchants of Boston oppose British goods.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 2.
Revolution in France
(a) What was the tax collected by the Church in France ?
(b) Who was Danton?
(c) Who were the Encyclopaedists of eighteenth century France?
(d) Who provided free labour for the construction of public roads?
Answer:
(a) The clergy collected the (one tenth of the annual produce or earnings) from the common people.
(b) Danton, a great leader of the Revolution, addressed the assembled crowds and threw an open challenge to other European kings. He along with Herbert and Robespierre emerged as the main leaders of the National Convention.
(c) Diderot and Jean d’Alembert were the two Encyclopaedists of the eighteenth century of France.
(d) The Peasants provided free labor for the construction of public roads.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
“Taxation without Representation” led to the outbreak of American War of Independence – Explain
Answer:

  1. A Series of taxes were imposed on the colonists, when the Americans did not have representation in the British Parliament.
  2. The Sugar Act of 1764, the Currency Act, the Quartering Act of 1765 and the Stamp Act of 1765 – all their Act were protested by the American Colonists.
  3. They called for a boycott of trade with Britain until the taxes were withdrawn.
  4. The Townshend Acts of 1767 added fuel to the fire. Merchants of Boston organised boy cott of British Goods.
  5. When Townshend Acts were repealed retaining tax, on tea, it led to the incident of Boston tea party.
  6. In December 1773, a group of men disguised themselves as Native Americans boarded the cargo vessels and threw the tea overboard.
  7. This incident, known as Boston Tea Party, was done publicly before a large sympathetic crowd. It was a challenge which led to war between the rebellious colonies and England.
  8. George Washington became the colonist’s Commander-in-chief and the colonists challenged the right of the British Parliament to tax them against their will.
  9. “No taxation without representation” was their famous battle cry.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 8 The Beginning of the Modern Age 2

Question 2.
Highlight the contribution of French Philosophers to the Revolution of 1789.
Answer:

  1. There were many notable thinkers and writers in France in eighteenth century.
  2. Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau criticized the then existing conditions in France.
  3. Voltaire was vehement in his criticism of the Church.
  4. His famous quote was: “Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.”
  5. Rousseau’s political theory set the minds of many afire with new ideas and new resolves. His ideas played an important part in preparing the people of France for the great revolution.
  6. He argued that the laws are binding only when they are supported by the general will of
    the people.
  7. Montesquieu defended liberty. He put forward the theory of separation of powers.
  8. An Encyclopaedia also came out in Paris about this time and this was full of articles by Diderot and Jean d’Alembert.
  9. These philosophers and thinkers, opposed to religious intolerance and political and social privileges, succeeded in provoking large numbers of ordinary people to think and act.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Activity

Question 1.
If any Government becomes bankrupt like the Government of Louis XVI, what measures do you think are required to overcome the crisis.
Answer:

  1. At- the bankrupting level, seek the advice from a professional to manage the situation.
  2. Avoid unwanted expenditure.
  3. Maintaining low-interest rate is one way to seek to stimulate the economy.
  4. Tax increases are common tactic. Cut spending and raise taxes.
  5. While there are variety of methods countries have employed at various times and with various degrees of success. Just as spending cuts and tax hikes have demonstrated success, defaulting on the debt has worked for more than a few nations.

Question 2.
Attempt a comparative study of American War oflndependence and Indian Independence Movement.
Answer:

  1. The American struggle for independence was definitely very different nationalist uprisings in other colonies of the British in the East.
  2. In America it was the British settlers who entered into a bitter scuffle with British government authorities.
  3. In colonies like India the natives rose unanimously against the tyranny of the rules from the west.
  4. However, the echoes of the American uprising often found themselves penetrating into the writing and speeches of nationalists in the East.
  5. In his call to Indians to resist British domination Mahatma Gandhi often referred to and drew inspiration from the American revolution.
  6. On January 4, 1932, when Ghndhi actively propagating.
  7. ‘Satyagraha’ he wrote the following message, “Even as America won its independence through suffering, valour and sacrifice, so shall India, in God’s good time achieve her freedom by suffering, sacrifice and Non violence”.

Assignment

Question 1.
Attempting an account of Bastille prison.
Answer:
The Storming of the Bastille took place in Paris, France on July 14,1789. This violent attack on the government by the people of France signaled the start of the French Revolution.

The Bastille was a fortress built in the late 1300s to protect Paris during the Hundred Years’ War. By the late 1700s, the Bastille was mostly used as a state prison by King Louis XVI.

The revolutionaries who stormed the Bastille were mostly craftsmen and store owners who lived in Paris. They were members of a French social class called the Third Estate. There were around 1000 men who participated in the attack.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

The Bastille was rumoured to be full of political prisoners and was a symbol to many of the oppression of the king. It also had stores of gunpowder that the revolutionaries needed for their weapons.

On the morning of July 14, the revolutionaries approached the Bastille. They demanded that the military leader of the Bastille, Governor de Launay, surrender the prison and hand over the gunpowder. He refused.

In the early afternoon, the crowd managed to get into the courtyard. They began to break into the main fortress. The soldiers in the Bastille became scared and fired into the crowd. The fighting had began. The turning point in the fight came when some of the soldiers joined the side of the crowd.

Governor De Launay soon realized that the situation was hopeless. He surrendered the fort and the revolutionaries took control.

Around 100 of the revolutionaries were killed during the fighting. After surrendering, Governor De Launay and three of his officers were killed by the crowd.

The storming of the Bastille set off a series of events that led to the overthrow of King Louis XVI and the French Revolution, The success of the revolutionaries gave commoners throughout France the courage to rise up and fight against the nobles who had ruled them for so long.

The date of the Storming of the Bastille, July 14, is celebrated today as the French National Day.

Les Miserable is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862. It is considered as one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.

The story is set between 1815 and 1832. The main character is Jean Valijean. He is an ex-convict, who is struggling with sorting his life out. He has been imprisoned because he stole bread to feed his starving family.

After he is released, he is forced to carry a yellow badge that identifies him as being an ex¬convict. He is looked down upon because he is publicly known as a criminal. He later gets a new identity and raises a family.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Examining the nature of law and grace, the novel elaborates upon the history of France, the architecture and urban design of Paris, politics, moral philosophy, antimonarchism, justice, religion, and the types and nature of romantic and familial love. It focuses on the struggle that an ex-convict had to endure throughout his life.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science The Age of Revolutions Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
The ship Mayflower had taken a batch of Puritans from England.
(a) London
(b) Plymouth
(c) Ireland
(d) New south wales
Answer:
(b) Plymouth

Question 2.
Which one of the following was not an American colony of the British on the East?
(a) Virginia
(b) Georgia
(c) Seattle
(d) Delaware
Answer:
(c) Seattle

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 3.
Which of the following Acts required the colonies to pay for the cost of keeping British VA A- troops in America?
(a) Stamp Act
(b) TownshendAct
(c) Sugar Act
(d) Quartering Act
Answer:
(d) Quartering Act

Question 4.
The first president of the American Republic was ________
(a) George Washington
(b) Thomas Jefferson
(c) Andrew Jackson
(d) Mirabeau
Answer:
(a) George Washington

Question 5.
Who was not a member of the Second Continental Congress?
(a) Sam Adams
(b) General Gage
(c) John Adams
(d) Thomas Jefferson
Answer:
(b) General Gage

Question 6.
The book ‘Social Contract’ was written by ________
(a) Rousseau
(b) Montesquieu
(c) Voltaire
(d) Diderot
Answer:
(a) Rousseau

Question 7.
The hardcore republicans were the ________
(a) Nobles of the sword
(b) Jacibins
(c) Nobles of the robe
(d) Girondins
Answer:
(b) Jacibins

Question 8.
Marat played a major role in _______
(a) Battle of Bunker Hill
(b) Regin of Terror
(c) September Massacres
(d) Paries Commune
Answer:
(c) September Massacres

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 9.
The first consul was ______
(a) Thomas jefferson
(b) Rousseau
(c) Robespierre
(d) Napoleon Bonaparte
Answer:
(d) Napoleon Bonaparte

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. The Sugar Act of 1764 prohibited the import of ______
  2. The ____________ acted like a political party and instilled a new political awareness.
  3. The Declaratory Act affirmed _______ right to legislate for the colonies.
  4. The _______ led to intense anti-British propaganda through newspapers, posters and
  5. In May 1774, in the Virginia Assembly, Thomas Jefferson declared that would be a day of fasting and prayer.
  6. The first Continental Congress met in ______
  7. The Patriot militia force of _______
  8. The Americans were divided among themselves as Patriots and _______
  9. The Continental Congress had drafted the _______
  10. The French Monarchy of the ____________ had enjoyed unchallenged power for 140 years.
  11. Turgot, Necker, Calonne and Brienne were the ____________ of the French King.

Answer:

  1. Foreign rum
  2. Sons of Liberty
  3. Parliaments
  4. Boston Massacre
  5. 1 June 1774
  6. Philadelphia
  7. Green Mountain Boys
  8. Loyalists
  9. Articles of Confederation]
  10. Ancient Regime
  11. Finance Ministers

III. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) The persecution of Puritans prompted many to leave England and settle.
(ii) George Fox was the founder of the society in England.
(iii) In the Northern states, planters were in need of slaves.
(iv) Americans had good representation in the British parliament.
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (iii) is correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (i) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 2.
(i) The Second Continental Congress met in September 1774, at Philadelphia.
(ii) The Loyalists were better organized than the patriots.
(iii) After the battle of York town, Cornwallis lost the confidence of the successive British Governments.
(iv) One of the results of the American war of Independence was the separation of the church and the state.
(a) (i) and (iv) are correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (ii) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iv) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 3.
Assertion (A): The revolutionaries were determined to fight against royal absolutism.
Reason (R): Mirabeau quoted the Declaration of Independence with enthusiasm during the French Revolution.
(a) A is correct and R is not the explanation of A
(b) A is incorrect and R is not the explanation of A
(c) A is correct and R is the explanation of A
(d) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are incorrect
Answer:
(c) A is correct and R is the explanation of A]

Question 4.
Assertion (A): In September 1791, the National Assembly framed the first constitution.
Reason (R): The king was given unlimited powers as the Executive head.
(a) A is correct and R is not the explanation of A
(b) A is incorrect and R is not the explanation of A
(c) A is correct and R is the explanation of A
(d) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are incorrect
Answer:
(a) A is correct and R is not the explanation of A

IV. Match the following

Question 1.
(a) Daughters of Liberty – (i) Olive Branch Petition
(b) General Gage – (ii) Resolution for Independence
(c) Second Continental Congress – (iii) Townshend Acts
(d) Richard Henry Lee – (iv) Cornwallis
(e) Peace of Paris – (v) Massachusetts
Answer:
(a) – (iii)
(b) – (v)
(c) – (i)
(d) – (ii)
(e) – (iv)

Question 2.
(a) Nobles of the sword – (0 Montesquieu
(b) Nobles of the Robe – (ii) National Assembly
(c) Rousseau – (iii) Traditional
(d) The Spirit of laws – (iv) Social contract
(e) Mirabeau – (v) New class of nobility
Answer:
(a) – (iii)
(b) – (v)
(c) – (iv)
(d) – (i)
(e) – (ii)

V. Answer the following briefly

Question 1.
Mention about the attempts made by Britain to establish colonies in America.
Answer:

  1. Jamestown was the first British colony in America (1607).
  2. The ship Mayflower had taken a batch of Puritans from Plymouth, England, to America in 1620.
  3. They landed in the north and called the place New Plymouth.
  4. Another Puritan group led by John Winthrop set up the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Question 2.
Name the thirteen colonies under the British control on the east coast of America.
Answer:
The Thirteen colonies which were under the British control were

  1. Rhode Island
  2. New Hampshire
  3. Massachusetts
  4. Connecticut,
  5. New York
  6. New Jersey
  7. Pennsylvania
  8. Delaware

Question 3.
What was the need for slaves in the Southern states?
Answer:

  1. The European planters, chiefly of tobacco, in the southern states- Virginia, Carolinas and Georgia needed workers to work in the plantations.
  2. The Native Americans resisted attempts to make them work in the plantations.
  3. Thus the Europeans planters were in search of labour Africa.
  4. The innocent people of Africa were captured in man-hunts and sent across the seas in a cruel and inhuman manner.

Question 4.
Why were a series of taxes imposed on the colonists?
Answer:

  1. The Seven Years War of 1756-63 between France and Britain cost the English heavily.
  2. The British Ministers proposed that the American colonists pay some of the cost of the war.
  3. So a series of taxes were imposed on the colonists.

Question 5.
Who were called “Sons of Liberty”?
Answer:

  1. The American colonists protested against all the taxes levied on them.
  2. They called for a boycott of trade with Britain until all the taxes were withdrawn.
  3. This apart, groups calling themselves “Sons of Liberty” sprang up in all the colonies in 1765 and 1766.
  4. The Sons of Liberty acted like a political party and instilled a new political awareness among many ordinary Americans.

Question 6.
Why was Townshend Act introduced?
Answer:

  1. The British needed money to pay its troops and other expenses in the colonies.
  2. Hence the British Finance Minister Charles Townshend introduced new duties on imports in 1767, known as Townshend Acts.
  3. They introduced duties on imports to colonies such as glass, paper, paint, lead and tea.

Question 7.
Mention about Boston Massacre, (or) Why were Townshend Acts repealed?
Answer:

  1. In March 1770, resentment rose in Boston, when troops fired on a crowd which had thrown snowballs at them.
  2. There was firing by the troops resulting in many deaths.
  3. This incident is known as the Boston Massacre.
  4. It led to intense anti-British propaganda through newspapers, posters and pamphlets.
  5. It resulted in the repealing of Townshend Acts except on tea.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 8.
State the reasons for the meeting of the First Continental Congress in 1774 in Philadelphia.
Answer:

  1. In May 1774, in the Virginia Assembly, Thomas Jefferson declared that 1 June 1774 would be a day of fasting and prayer.
  2. In response to this declaration, the colonial governor dissolved the assembly.
  3. Then the members drafted a resolution to form the Continental Congress. Soon members joined from other colonies.
  4. On 5 September 1774 the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia.

Question 9.
What signaled the outbreak of the American War of Independence?
Answer:

  1. After the British troops shot down parading American militiamen at Lexington in Massachusetts, in April 1774 Governor Gage decided to seize arms hidden at Concord.
  2. When the local farmers came to know of this, they fought the British troops at the Battle of Lexington.
  3. Then they rushed to Boston to besiege the British garrison at Bunker Hill.
  4. This signaled the outbreak of the American War of Independence.

Question 10.
Mention the names of the prominent members of the second continental congress.
Answer:

  1. The Second Continental Congress met on 10 May 1775 at Philadelphia.
  2. John Adams, Sam Adams, Richard Henry Lee and Thomas Jefferson were some of prominent members of the Congress.
  3. It organized the army gathered around Boston as the Continental Army.
  4. It was placed under the command of George Washington.

Question 11.
Write about the pamphlet ‘Common Sense’.
Answer:

  1. In January 1776, an anonymous pamphlet under the title Common Sense was published.
  2. It was authored by Thomas Paine who had recently migrated to America from England.
  3. It attacked the allegiance to the Crown and called for complete independence.
  4. George Washington remarked, “Common Sense is working a powerful change in the minds of men.”

Question 12.
Who was Patriots and Loyalists?
Answer:

  1. Americans were divided among themselves as Patriots and Loyalists.
  2. About two-thirds of the people who supported the war were Patriots.
  3. The Patriots fought for independence and the Loyalists supported the British.
  4. The Patriots were better organized than the loyalists.

Question 13.
State the importance of the battle of Saratoga.
Answer:

  1. In 1777, the British managed to occupy Philadelphia.
  2. Washington’s efforts to take a town near Philadelphia were spoiled by Lord Cornwallis.
  3. But the British were defeated at Saratoga.
  4. This defeat paved the way for an alliance between France and the Americans.
  5. On 6 February 1778, France and America signed two treaties by which France recognized the United States of America and offered trade concessions.

Question 14.
What was the role played by Cornwallis in the American war of Independence?
Answer:

  1. Cornwallis’ military action in the American War of Independence was praiseworthy.
  2. He inflicted defeats on the American army in a few battles though finally he had to surrender his army at Yorktown.
  3. Despite the defeat, Cornwallis retained the confidence of successive British governments and continued to enjoy an active career.

Question 15.
Mention the importance of the victory of the Americans at Yorktown.
Answer:

  1. Washington attacked Yorktown, with a combined American and French troops.
  2. Cornwallis, who took up a defensive position in Yorktown, was cut off from the sea by the French fleet.
  3. On 19 October 1781 Cornwallis surrendered.
  4. Peace of Paris was signed. Great Britain agreed to the independence of the United States.
  5. The British forces departed from Yorktown in 1781.

Question 16.
Mention the three major revolution in the second half of the eighteenth century in the modern world.
Answer:
The three major revolutions were

  1. The American Revolution – which helped to end the pre-capitalist feudal past.
  2. The Industrial Revolution – which laid the foundations for capitalism.
  3. The French Revolution – which affected the life and society in the whole of continental Europe.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 17.
How did the revolution of 1789 begin in France?
Answer:

  1. The representation of the third Estate, that is commons, had refused either to bow to the nobles or to obey the orders of the King.
  2. They proclaimed themselves a National Assembly and gathering on a tennis court after the King had cleared them out of their hall.
  3. They swore on oath, Tennis court Oath, not to disperse until the king gave them a constitution.
  4. Thus began the revolution of 1789 in France.

Question 18.
What were the causes for France to go through a period of economic crisis on the eve of the French Revolution.
Answer:

  1. On the eve of the French revolution the French treasury was bankrupt because of its involvement in the Seven Years War.
  2. French participation in the American War of Independence made the financial condition worse.
  3. The luxurious lifestyle of the royalty and nobles in Versailles court added to the economic crisis.
  4. When the Finance Ministers of the King, Turgot, Necker, Calonne and Brienne suggested reduction of royal expenditure and taxation of the first two Estates – the advice was disregarded.
  5. The government borrowed heavily resulting in a huge fiscal deficit.

Question 19.
What was the impact of the American war of Independence on the French Revolution?
Answer:

  1. The establishment of the American Republic inspired the French Revolution and provided them with a model.
  2. The French like Lafayette who participated in the American War of Independence and came back with democratic ideals.
  3. He played an active role in the French Revolution.

Question 20.
Write a note on the National Assembly formed during the course of the French Revolution.
Answer:

  1. The National Assembly comprised moderate liberals, who wanted a constitution on the model of England and America.
  2. Their leader was Mirabeau. The Assembly was controlled by the middle classes.
  3. There was no representation to the peasants and the common masses.
  4. This National Assembly abolished serfdom, feudal privileges, including exempting nobles and clergy from taxation, even titles, and feudal courts.
  5. The Assembly then passed a Declaration of the Rights of the Man and the Citizen.

Question 21.
Who were‘Emigres’?
Answer:

  1. Many nobles who supported the monarchy fled France and lived in exile. They were known as Emigres (those who had emigrated).
  2. This included the brothers of the King.
  3. They lived in the frontier towns bordering France and were preparing for counter¬revolutionary moves.

Question 22.
What is meant by the term ‘Reign of Terror’?
Answer:

  1. There was a struggle for power between the various groups, chiefly between the Girondins and the Jacobins.
  2. The Convention, dominated by the Jacobins, appointed two committees the Committees of Public Welfare and Public Safety with wide powers.
  3. In September 1793, the Convention passed the Law of Suspects, and under that law, after a month later twenty two Girondins were tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal and sentenced to death.
  4. Reign of Terror’ began with this incident.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 23.
When did the Reign of Terror end?
Answer:

  1. The ‘Reign of Terror’ lasted for forty six days.
  2. On 27 July 1794, the Convention suddenly turned against Robespierre and his supporters.
  3. The Reign of Terror ended with the fall of Robespierre.
  4. Robespierre, the dictator of the Convention, though he was honest, patriotic and a person of integrity, earned notoriety by sending many of his colleagues to the guillotine.
  5. In October 1795 the Convention broke up and a Directory of five members assumed power.

Question 24.
How did Napolean became the Emperor of France?
Answer:

  1. The Directory was short lived and was replaced by the Consulate with Napoleon as the first Consul.
  2. This Consulate was abolished by Napoleon Bonaparte, who later crowned himself as the Emperor of France.

VI. Answer all questions given under each heading

Question 1.
Plantations and the slave labour
(a) Why did the southern states resort to acquire slaves from Africa?
Answer:
The Native Americans resisted attempts to make them work in the plantations, So the European planters, chiefly of tobacco, in the southern states- Virginia, Carolinas and Georgia – in their search for labour resorted to acquire slaves from Africa

(b) How were these slaves treated?
Answer:
The innocent people of Africa were captured in man-hunts and sent across the seas in a cruel and inhuman manner.

(c) Did the Northern state resort to acquire slaves? Give reasons.
Answer:
In the northern States conditions were different. There were compact farms, and not huge plantations as in the south. Large numbers of workers were not needed for these farms.

(d) What happened to the Native Americans?
Answer:
Native Americans had no place in either of these. So these people were gradually pushed back to the west.

Question 2.
Increasing incidence of Taxation
(a) What was the Sugar Act?
Answer:
The Sugar Act of 1764 prohibited the import of foreign rum and imposed duties on molasses, wines, silks, coffee and other luxury items.

(b) What was the Currency Act?
Answer:
The Currency Act insisted on colonies repaying the debt only in gold or silver.

(c) Explain the Quartering Act.
Answer:
The Quartering Act of 1765 required the colonies to pay for the cost of keeping British troops in America.

(d) What was the stamp Act?
Answer:
The Stamp Act of 1765 required that any printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 3.
American war of Independence
(a) Who was appointed as commander-in-chief by the colonists?
Answer:
George Washington was appointed as the commander-in-chief by the colonists.

(b) What were the grievances of the colonists?
Answer:
Their grievances were taxation and restrictions on trade and not to seek independence.

(c) What was their famous battle cry?
Answer:
‘No Taxation without representation’ – was their famous battle cry.

(d) Who was appointed as the Governor of Massachusetts?
Answer:
The British government appointed General Gage as Governor of Massachusetts.

Question 4.
Declaration of Independence
(a) When was the pamphlet Common Sense published?
Answer:
In January 1776, the pamphlet ‘Common Sense’ was published.

(b) Who moved a resolution for independence?
Answer:
On June 7, 1776, Richarad Henry Lee of Virginia moved a resolution for independence.

(c) Who drafted Declaration of Independence? When was it adopted by the Congress?
Answer:
Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration for Independence. It was adopted by the Congress
on July 4, 1776.

(d) Mention the significance of this day.
Answer:
July 4 is the day celebrated by the Americans as Independence Day.

Question 5.
The French Revolution
(a) When did the French Revolution explode?
Answer:
The French Revolution exploded in 1789.

(b) Who summoned the Estates General on May 1789?
Answer:
Louis XVI to summoned the Estates General on May 1789.

(c) What was Estates General?
Answer:
The Estates General consisted of the representatives of three classes or “estates,” as they were called.

(d) What was the reaction of the commons towards the king?
Answer:
The commons had refused either to bow to the nobles or to obey the orders of the King. By taking “Tennis Court oath” they demanded a constitution from the king. This was the begining of the French Revolution in 1789. .

Question 6.
The French Philosophers
(a) Mention the famous quote of Voltaire.
Answer:
Voltaire’s most famous quote was: “Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.”

(b) What was famously said by Rousseau in his ‘Social Contract’.
Answer:
Rousseau-famously said in his book Social Contract: “Man is bom free, but is everywhere in chains.”

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

(c) Who wrote the ‘Persian Letters’
Answer:
Montesquieu wrote the ‘Persian Letters’.

(d) What was the impact of these Philosophers on the French society?
Answer:
These philosophers and thinkers, opposed to religious intolerance and political and social privileges, succeeded in provoking large numbers of ordinary people to think and act.

Question 7.
Flight to Varennes
(a) Why did the king decide to escape from Paris?
Answer:
The king’s position was increasingly shaky. He was not able to reconcile to the legislations passed by the National Assembly. He decided to escape from Paris.

(b) Where did he is escape to?
Answer:
Dressing himself as a valet, he escaped along with his family to Varennes, a border town.

(c) Who arrested him?
Answer:
But he was recognised there by a postman, and was arrested by the National Guards.

(d) Where was he placed virtually a prisoner?
Answer:
He was brought back to Paris where he remained in Paris virtually a prisoner.

Question 8.
Constitution of 1791
(a) Who framed the first constitution?
Answer:
In September 1791, the National Assembly framed the first constitution.

(b) What did it provide for?
Answer:
It provided for a constitutional monarchy.

(c) What type of Legislature was to be formed?
Answer:
The Legislature consisted of a single chamber of 750 members. The franchise was limited to those who owned a certain amount of property.

(d) What was the role of the king? .
Answer:
The king continued be the Executive Head, but his powers were considerably limited.

Question 9.
Robespierre
(a) Who was Robespierre?
Answer:
Robespierre was one of the main leaders of the National Convention. He controlled the committee of public safety and eliminated his rivals.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

(b) What type of person was he?
Answer:
He was honest, patriotic and a person of integrity. But he became the dictator of the Convention, earned notoriety by sending many of his colleagues to the guillotine.

(c) What was the Law of Suspects?
Answer:
Under the law of suspects, large group of persons were tried together and sentenced. This Terror lasted for forty six days.

(d) What happened to Robespierre?
Answer:
On 27 July 1794, the convention suddenly turned against Robespierre and his supporters. The Reign of Terror ended with the fall of the Robespierre.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
How did the American war of Independence end in the declaration of independence?
Answer:

  1. Initially the colonies did not begin fighting for the sake of independence. Their grievances were taxation and restrictions on trade.
  2. George Washington was the Commender-in-Chief of the colonies and their battle cry was ‘No Taxation without Representation’.
  3. On 5 September 1774, the first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. The Congress adopted a Declaration of American Rights.
  4. The Battle of Bunker Hill signaled the outbreak of the American war of Independence.
  5. The second Continental Congress met on 10 May 1775 at Philadelphia. It organised the army gathered around Boston as the continental army and placed it under the command of George Washington.
  6. As the war progressed, the Continental Congress assumed the functions of government. A committee was formed to explore the possibility of foreign aid.
  7. On 17 June 1775 the Battle of Bunker Hill, the first major battle was fought in Massachusetts. Soon the British forces retreated from Boston.
  8. On June 7, 1776 Richard Henry Lee of Virginia moved a resolution for independence.
  9. After much debate the Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, was adopted by the Congress on July 4, 1776. This day is celebrated by the Americans as Independence Day.

Question 2.
State the results of the American war of Independence.
Answer:

  1. For the first time a colonial power was overthrown by the colonies, leading to the establishment of a republican government in the United States.
  2. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 stated that, “all men are bom equal.” But in reality America had to fight a bitter civil war in the succeeding century to abolish slavery.
  3. By 1777 nearly all the colonies had a written constitution These constitutions protected individual rights, freedom of press and freedom of religion. The church and the state were separated.
  4. The intellectuals of the time believed that the republican state was the only political structure in which individuals could preserve their basic freedom including property and political rights.
  5. The conception of people’s right to a government of their choice encouraged the Latin American revolutionaries to strive for the overthrow of the Spanish empire in South America.
  6. Mirabeau quoted the Declaration of Independence with enthusiasm during the French Revolution.
  7. Lafayette, who fought the British on Washington’s side through to the conclusive battle at Yorktown in 1781, later during the French Revolution served the French National Guard as its Commander.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 9 The Age of Revolutions

Question 3.
Ring out the impact of the French Revolution.
Answer:

  1. The French Revolution had may lasting results.
  2. It marked the end of the system of absolute monarchy in France.
  3. All feudal privileges were abolished and the power of clergy was curbed.
  4. The Revolution united the people of different sections and paved the way for the enhanced power of the state.
  5. It also led to the growth of feelings of nationalism and the emergence of an assertive middle class.
  6. Revolution upheld the theory of people’s sovereignty and laid the foundation for the birth of liberal constitutional governments in Europe.
  7. Liberty, equality, and fraternity became the watchwords of freedom loving people all over the world.
  8. It inspired many later day political movements for the establishment of liberal democracy in Europe and elsewhere.

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