Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 5 The Classical World Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science The Classical World Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
________ is the Greek city-state which resisted the Persians to the end.
(a) Acropolis
(b) Sparta
(c) Athens
(d) Rome
Answer:
(c) Athens

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
The other name for Greeks was ______
(a) Hellenists
(b) Hellenes
(c) Phoenicians
(d) Spartans
Answer:
(b) Hellenes

Question 3.
The founder of Han dynasty was
(a) Wu Ti
(b) Hung Chao
(c) Liu pang
(d) Mangu Khan
Answer:
(c) Liu pang

Question 4.
was the Roman Governor responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus.
(a) Innocent
(b) Hildebrand
(c) Leo II
(d) Pontius Pilate
Answer:
(d) Pontius Pilate

Question 5.
The Peloponnesian War was fought between ______ and _____
(a) Greeks and Persians
(b) Plebians and Particians
(c) Spartans and Athenians
(d) Greeks and Roman
Answer:
(c) Spartans and Athenians

III. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Greeks defeated the Persians at ______
  2. _____ stood in favour of poor peasants in Roman republic.
  3. Buddhism came to China from India during the reign of dynasty.
  4. The most magnificent building in Europe was
  5. _____ and ______ were Magistrates in Rome

Answer:

  1. Marathon
  2. Tiberius Gracchus, Garius do Gracchus
  3. Han
  4. St. Sophia Cathedral
  5. Marius, Sulla

III. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) First Persian attack on Greece failed.
(ii) The downfall of Roman Empire is attributed to Julius Caesar.
(iii) The Barbarians who invaded Rome were considered to be culturally advanced.
(iv) Buddhism weakened the Roman Empire.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
(i) Euclid developed a model for the motion of planets and stars.
(ii) Romans established a republic after overthrowing Etruscans.
(iii) Acropolis became a famous slave market.
(iv) Rome and Carthage united to drive out the Greeks.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
Silk road was closed during the Han dynasty.
(ii) Peasant uprisings posed threats to Athenian democracy.
(iii) Virgil’s Aeneid glorified Roman imperialism.
(iv) Spartacus killed Julius Caesar.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iii) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iii) is correct

Question 4.
(i) Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius was a tyrant.
(ii) Romulus Aurelius was the most admired ruler in Roman History.
(iii) Fabius was a famous Carthaginian General.
(iv) Tacitus is respected more than Livy as a historian.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct d)
(iv) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iv) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 5.
(i) Buddhism went to China from Japan.
(ii) After crucifixion of Jesus, St Thomas spread the Christian doctrine.
(iii) St Sophia Cathedral was the most magnificent building in Europe.
(iv) Trajan was one of the worst dictators that Rome had.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

IV. Match the following

  1. Acropolis – (i) Consul
  2. Plato – (ii) Athens
  3. Marius – (iii) Philosopher
  4. Zeus – (iv) Materialist
  5. Epicurus – (v) A fortified city

Answer:

  1. – (v)
  2. – (iii)
  3. – (i)
  4. – (ii)
  5. – (iv)

V. Answer the folio wing briefly:

Question 1.
Attempt an account of slavery in Rome.
Answer:

  1. Rome produced a new labour force called slaves.
  2. A major source of revenue to the Roman state was slave trade.
  3. Slave labour led to the impoverishment of free labour.
  4. The island of Delos became a great slave market.
  5. There were more slave revolts in Rome than in Greece.
  6. The revolt of Spartacus was the most famous.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
Highlight the main contribution of Constantine.
Answer:

  1. One of the Roman emperors Constantine himself became a Christian,
  2. Christianity thus became the official religion of the Empire.

Question 3.
What do you know of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal?
Answer:

  1. Carthage sent a general named Hannibal.
  2. He defeated the Roman army and made a great part of Italy a desert.
  3. In the second Punic War, Fabius confronted Hannibal and defeated him in the Battle of Zama.
  4. Pursued by the Roman army, Hannibal ended his life by poisoning himself.

Question 4.
What were the reasons for the prosperity of Han Empire?
Answer:

  1. Han dynasty, founded by Liu Pang, flourished for 400 years (206 BC to AD 220).
  2. The most popular and powerful ruler was Wu Ti.
  3. His generals succeeded in driving away the Huns in the north.
  4. Thus the Han Empire once again threw open the silk road for trade.
  5. A large export trade, mainly in silk, reached as far as the Roman Empire.
  6. In the north, artisans and herders of rival “barbarian” dynasties brought in new techniques like the methods of harnessing horses, use of saddle and stirrup, techniques of building bridges and mountain roads, and seafaring.
  7. Such innovations made Han Empire prosperous.

Question 5.
Write about St. Sophia Cathedral.
Answer:

  1. St. Sophia Cathedral was built in mid-sixth century AD (CE).
  2. It was the most magnificent building in Europe.
  3. It was known for its innovative architectural techniques.
  4. This Cathedral was turned into a mosque by the Ottoman Turks when they captured Constantinople.

VI. Answer all questions given under each heading

Question 1.
Emergence of Rome as an empire
(a) Who were the Gracchus brothers?
(b) What role did they play?
(c) What was the outcome of their martyrdom?
(d) Who was the first Roman Emperor?
Answer:
(a) Tiberius Gracchus and Garius do Gracchus.
(b) They voiced their opinion in favour of the poor peasants.
(c) The martyrdom of the Gracchus brothers played a decisive role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
(d) Augustus.

Question 2.
Han Dynasty
(a) Who was the founder of Han Empire ?
(b) What was the capital of Han Empire?
(c) Where did they have their new capital?
(d) Who was the powerful ruler of the Han dynasty?
Answer:
(a) Liu Pang.
(b) Chang-an.
(c) They had their new capital at Xu Chang.
(d) Wu Ti.

VII. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Discuss the rise and growth of Athens, pointing out its glorious legacy.
Answer:

  1. In Athens, the pressure from below resulted in the replacement of both oligarchy and tyranny by “democracy.”
  2. The law-making power in Athens was vested in an assembly open to all freemen.
  3.  Judges and lower officials were chosen hy lots.
  4. This arrangement was resented by the upper classes who considered democracy to be the rule of the mob.
  5. The history of many Greek city-states was one of continual struggles by the rich landowners against “democracy”.
  6. The only exception was Athens, where “democracy’ survived for about 200 years
  7. Athens had a great leader, Pericles, who held power for thirty years.
  8. During his rule, Athens and Sparta were continuously at war with each other. This war is known as the Peloponnesian War.
  9. Athens, despite hostility and disturbance from Sparta, became a noble city with magnificent buildings.
  10. There were great artists and great thinkers.
  11. Historians therefore call this the Age of Pericles.
  12. The great historians Herodotus and Thucydides lived during the period.
  13. Socrates was a great thinker of the Pericles era.
  14. Plato, Aristotle, Democritus and Epicurus belonged to this period.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
Write about India’s position during classical position.
Answer:

  1. The Kushan period corresponded with the last days of the Roman Republic, when Julius Caesar was alive.
  2. The Kushan Empire is said to have sent an embassy to Augustus Caesar who succeeded Julius.
  3. The corresponding period 4th and 5th A.D. (C.E.) in south India, characterized as Kalabhra period.
  4. Teakwood, pepper, pearls, ivory, brocades and precious stones and the like were exported from the Malabar Coast to Babylonia, Egypt, Greece and Rome. Trade with Rome further flourished.
  5. Eighteen major works of Sangam age Viz eight Anthologies (Ettuthogai) and Ten Idylls (Pathupattu) compiled during the first three centuries of common Era were composed during this period. Sangam Literature hailed as first secular literature of India.

Activities for Students

Question 1.
In an outline map of Europe, the students are to sketch the extent of Western and Eastern
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
Students are to be guided by teachers to Google the architectural splendours of classical civilisations of Greece, Rome and China.
Answer:
Activity to be done by the students themselves

Assignment with Teacher’s guidance:

Question 1.
Preparing albums, with masterpiece arts of Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Chinese.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
Writing the brief biography of the distinguished Roman Emperors.
Answer:
Activity to be done by the students themselves

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science The Classical World Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
In Greece the land was controlled by ___________
(a) Slaves
(b) Writers
(c) Philosophers
(d) Ruling class
Answer:
(d) Ruling class

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
Greeks defeated the Persians at ___________
(a) Athens
(b) Sparta
(c) Marathon
(d) Alexandria
Answer:
(c) Marathon

Question 3.
In Athens, democracy survived for about year ___________
(a) 50
(b) 100
(c) 200
(d) 150
Answer:
(c) 200

Question 4.
Plato was the disciple of _______
(a) Socrates
(b) Aristotle
(c) Democritus
(d) Macedonia
Answer:
(a) Socrates

Question 5.
Alexander the Great, established a kingdom in ___________
(a) Athens
(b) Sparta
(c) Marathon
(d) Macednia
Answer:
(d) Macednia

Question 6.
The basic theorems of Geometry was formulated by ___________
(a) Hipparchus
(b) Ptolemy
(C) Euclid
(d) Eratosthenes
Answer:
(c) Euclid

Question 7.
The Roman Republic w as governed by the ___________
(a) Plebeians
(b) Patricians
(C) Lawyers
(d) Philosophers
Answer:
(b) Patricians

Question 8.
A major source of revenue to the Roman state was ___________
(a) Agriculture
(b) Exports
(c) Taxes
(d) Slaves trade
Answer:
(d) Slaves trade

Question 9.
Julius Caesar took power in ___________ B.C.
(a) 40
(b) 51
(C) 49
(d) 38
Answer:
(c) 49

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 10.
Odes was contributed by ___________
(a) Pliny the Elder
(b) Livy
(C) Horace
(d) Tacitus
Answer:
(c) Horace

II. Find out the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) Classical World comprises Greece and Rome
(ii) Greek writers and philosophers saw the ownership of slaves as hindrance to a civilized life.
(iii) Olympian Zeus was an enormous temple at Athens.
(iv) King Darius succeeded Xerxes.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (i) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (i) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.
(i) The Persian danger had united the Greeks.
(ii) Pericles was a great leader of Sparta.
(iii) Herodotus lived during the age of Pericles.
(iv) The best student of Plato was Aristotle.
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (i) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
(i) Cultural development that took place rapidly after Alexander’s death is called Hellenistic civilization.
(ii) The entire period of Alexander reign was very peaceful without any war.
(iii) Ptolemy developed a model of the motion of the planets and stars.
(iv) Plebeians were rich landlords.
(a) (i) and (iii) are correct
(b) (iv) is correct
(c) (ii) is correct
(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(a) (i) and (iii) are correct

Question 4.
(i) Carthaginians were the descendants of the Phoenicians.
(ii) Senators and Consuls protected the interests of the Plebeians.
(iii) Sulla was expelled by Marius.
(iv) Virgil’s Aeneid glorified Greek imperialism.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (iii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Question 5.
(i) Wu Ti belonged to Chin dynasty.
(ii) The period after Han rule witnessed political stability.
(iii) The Byzantine emperors called themselves Greeks.
(iv) Romans carried on their civilization in the East with Constantinople as capital.
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (iii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(c) (iv) is correct

III. Match the following

Question 1.
(a) Seneca – (i) Principate
(b) Augustus – (ii) Philosopher
(c) Punic war – (iii) Slave market
(d) Socrates – (iv) Science
(e) Delos – (v) Zama
Answer:
(a) – (iv)
(b) – (i)
(c) – (v)
(d) – (ii)
(e) – (iii)

IV. Fill in the blanks

  1. A fortified city of ancient Greeks on a hill in Athens was ___________
  2. The Age of Tyrants 6th century BC to 4th century BC proved to be a period of ___________
  3. Pericles had power for years ___________
  4. The Greek-Egyptian city was ___________
  5. After Punic wars, Rome emerged as an ___________ power in the western world.
  6. Catalina’s defeat led to ___________
  7. Octavian was known as ___________
  8. Augustus called himself ___________
  9. Wang Cheng, was popularly known as ___________
  10. Shih Huang Ti means ___________
  11. From China, a large export-trade mainly in silk reached as far as the _____
  12. With Buddhism, came the influence of art to China ___________
  13. The period after Han rule witnessed political across the country ___________
  14. One of the Roman emperors ___________ himself became a Christian.
  15. Internal crisis and invasion of Franks, Goths and Vandals ended the ___________

Answer:

  1. Acropolis
  2. Urban Development
  3. 30
  4. Alexandria
  5. unrivalled
  6. mob violence
  7. Augustus
  8. Imperator
  9. Shih Huang
  10. The first emperor
  11. Roman Empire
  12. Indian
  13. instability
  14. Constantine
  15. Roman Empire

V. Answer all questions given under each heading

Question 1.
Greece – The Hellenic World ”
(a) What helped the Greeks earn revenue through trade?
(b) Give one example of the festivals of the Greek City States.
(c) Who decided to conquer the Greek City States?
(d) Why did Athens shift to democracy?
(a) The Greeks succeeded in founding colonies along the coast that helped them earn revenue through trade .
(b) The Greek city states celebrated the Olympic festival of sports and games.
(c) King Darius (BC 550^186), who was heading a great empire in Persia, decided to conquer the Greek City States.
(d) In Athens, the pressure from below resulted in the replacement of both oligarchy and tyranny by “democracy”.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 2.
Athenian Democracy
(a) Who had the law making power in Athenian democracy ? (b) Who resented this arrangement?
(b) Who resented this arrangement?
(c) How long did democracy survive in Athens?
(d) What did Athenian democracy mean in reality?
Answer:
(a) The law making power in Athens was vested in an assembly open to all freemen. Judges and lower officials were chosen by lots.
(b) This arrangement was resented by the upper classes who considered democracy to be the rule of the mob.
(c) Democracy survived for about 200 years in Athens.
(d) The word ‘democracy’, literally means “rule of the people”. In reality it excluded slaves, women, and non-residents known as metics (traders and craftsmen).

Question 3.
Pericles
(a) Who was Pericles?
(b) What is meant by Peloponnesian war?
(c) ‘Age of Pericles’ – Explain.
(d) Who was the greatest thinker of the Pericles Era?
Answer:
(a) Pericles was a great leader of Athens who held power for thirty years.
(b) During his rule, Athens and Sparta were continuously at war with each other. This war is known as the Peloponnesian War.
(c) Athens became a noble city with magnificent buildings. There were great artists and great thinkers. Historians therefore call this the Age of Pericles.
(d) Socrates was the greatest thinker of the Pericles Era.

Question 4.
Punic Wars
(a) Who were Carthaginians ?
(b) Who united to drive out the Greeks
(c) Who was Hannibal?
(d) Describe the Third Punic War.
Answer:
(a) The Carthaginians were the descendants of the Phoenicians who excelled in seafaring and trade.
(b) Rome and Carthage united to drive out the Greeks.
(c) Carthage sent a general named Hannibal. He defeated the Roman army and made a great part of Italy a desert. But he was defeated by Fabius the Roman General in the Battle of Zama. Finally Hannibal ended his life by poisoning himself.
(d) The third Punic War was declared on the Carthaginians by Rome. After the defeat and destruction of the Carthage 4n this War, Rome emerged as an unrivalled power in the western world.

Question 5.
Slave Trade in Rome
(a) Mention the new labour force produced by Rome.
(b) What was the strength of the Slave population in the 1st century B.C.?
(c) What was the result of Salve trade?
(d) Where was there a great slave market?
Answer:
(a) Rome produced a new labour force for the rich to exploit. Big landholders bought slaves ‘ cheaply and used them to cultivate their estates.
(b) The slave population grew and by the 1 st century BC (BCE) there were two million slaves, when the total strength of free population was 3.25 million.
(c) Slave labour led to the impoverishment of free labour. Many poor peasants had to abandon their children who also ended up in the slave markets.
(d) The island of Delos became a great slave market.

Question 6.
Silk Route
(a) What is meant by silk route?
(b) Which place were linked by this route?
(c) Name the goods exchanged from East to West and West to East?
(d) Name the religion which reached China through this route ?
Answer:
(a) The trade route from China to Asia Minor and India, known as the Silk Road or Silk Route.
(b) It linked China with the West. Goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China were exchanged through this route.
(c) Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east.
(d) China received Buddhism from India via the Silk Road.

Question 7.
Byzantine Emperors
(a) Who were the Byzantine emperors ?
(b) Name the language used by them.
(c) What are the legacies left behind by them?
(d) Who took over the empire in 1453?
Answer:
(a) The Byzantine emperors, who ruled from the city of Constantinople for about 1,000 years, called themselves Romans.
(b) The used Greek language.
(c) The splendour of Constantinople with its luxurious royal palaces, its libraries, its scholars
familiar with the writings of Greeks and Romans and its fascinating St. Sophia Cathedral are the legacies they have left behind.
(d) Ottoman Turks took the empire in 1453.

VI. Answer the following briefly:

Question 1.
What is Classical World?
Answer:

  1. Classical World comprises ancient Greece and Rome.
  2. Classical Age refers to the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, known as Graeco- Roman World.

Question 2.
Why did the first Persian attack on Greece fail?
Answer:

  1. The first Persian attack on Greece failed.
  2. This was due to the fact that Persian army suffered from disease and lack of food, during its march.
  3. During the second attack, they avoided the land route and came by sea.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

Question 3.
Why did Oligarchy start in Greece ?
Answer:

  1. When the Greek City-States’first emerged, they still carried the legacy of the past.
  2. The rulers came from lines of traditional chieftains.
  3. Those who grew rich from the expansion of trade resented the privileges enjoyed by the old ruling families.
  4. The outcome was the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of “oligarchies” in many city-states.

Question 4.
What happened under Oligarchy in Greece?
Answer:

  1. Under Oligarchy, the new rich exploited the smaller landholders.
  2. So this republic was soon replaced by some ambitious men who administered tyrannically.

Question 5.
Write a note on Socrates.
Answer:

  1. Socrates was a great thinker of the Pericles Era.
  2. The Athenian government, after Pericles, did not like Socrates’ way of finding truth.
  3. He was accused of corrupting the youth.
  4. The jury found Socrates guilty and sentenced him to die by drinking hemlock (a poison).

Question 6.
Write about the reign of Alexander, the Great.
Answer:

  1. Under Alexander the Great, the Greeks were able to establish a kingdom in Macedonia.
  2. This kingdom succeeded in annexing two historic empires of Egypt and the Middle East.
  3. But the entire period of Alexander’s reign was spent on wars.
  4. The Greek school of Science, Mathematics and Philosophy reached its peak in the Greek- Egyptian city of Alexandria.

Question 7.
Who were Patricians and Plebeians?
Answer:

  1. Patricians were Aristocrats in the Roman Society Senators and Consuls protected the interests of Patricians.
  2. Plebeians were chronically in debt and had to eventually lose their land to the Patricians.

Question 8.
What was witnessed by the period of Principate?
Answer:

  1. The period witnessed a great influx of luxury goods such as silk, spices, and gems from the east.
  2. Cities were built on a grand scale, with temples, theatres, stadia and Colosseum, gymnasia, aqueducts, baths and markets.
  3. The rich people distracted the attention of the poor by organizing games and contests in circuses.
  4. Gladiators were forced to fight and kill each other.

Question 9.
What led to the collapse of Chin dynasty?
Answer:

  1. Shih Huang Ti crushed all local rulers and established a strong central government.
  2. However, uprisings of the peasantry, unlike in other cultures, occurred again and again in China.
  3. Such uprisings led to the collapse of Chin dynasty.

Question 10.
Why did the priests turn against Jesus?
Answer:

  1. Jesus was against the rich and the hypocrites.
  2. Jesus condemned certain observances and ceremonials.
  3. This was not to the liking of the priests.
  4. So they turned against Jesus and handed him over to the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide History Chapter 5 The Classical World

VII. Answer in detail:

Question 1.
Highlight the contribution of Greece to World Civilization.
Answer:

  1. The ancient Greeks created the world’s first democracy. Athens started on with a monarchy and then advanced to an oligarchy until it finally reached a democracy.
  2. The Greek Alphabet was the first alphabet in the western sense of the word, featuring
    distinct letters for vowels and consonants.
  3. The first library in the world, the library of Alexandria was actually built in Egypt.
  4. The Olympic games started in ancient Greece especially in the city of Olympia.
  5. Science and Mathematics – Eratosthenes was the first mathematician to calculate the circumference of the Earth. Aristarchus, Archimedes and Hipparchus were great mathematicians and scientists.
  6. One of the common examples of Greek Architecture in the modular world is the Column in Pillar.
  7. Greek mythology has pervaded nearly every form of popular culture imaginable. Many Greek myths have been adapted into modem novels, movies, T.V. shows etc.
  8. The first lighthouse in the world was located in the Greek controlled Egyptian Kingdom of Alexandria.
  9. The democratic people of ancient Greece, especially Athens, were the first to employ trial by jury as we know it today.

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