Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions Notes.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Development increases the quality of life.
Reason (R): People will have higher incomes, better education, better health and nutrition, less poverty.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 2.
The term ‘Human resources’ refers to ___________
(a) investment on poor people
(b) expenditure on agriculture
(c) investment on assets
(d) collective abilities of people
Answer:
(d) collective abilities of people

Question 3.
For comparing development between countries, their is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
(a) growth
(b) income
(c) expenditure
(d) savings
Answer:
(b) income

Question 4.
___________ is considered a true measure of national income.
(a) GNP
(b) GDP
(c) NNP
(d) NDP
Answer:
(c) NNP

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 5.
The income is also called per capita income. ___________
(a) average
(b) total
(c) people
(d) monthly
Answer:
(a) average

Question 6.
Which one of the following country is not a G-8 country?
(a) Japan
(b) Canada
(c) Russia
(d) India
Answer:
(d) India

Question 7.
Which one of the following country is not a member of SAARC?
(a) India
(b) Pakistan
(c) China
(d) Bhutan
Answer:
(c) China

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 8.
Assertion (A): The Net National Product (NNP) is considered as a true measure of national output.
Reason (R): It is also known as national income.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Question 9.
Assertion (A): Human resource is necessary for the progress of any country.
Reason (R): Investment in education and health of people can result in a high rate of returns in the future for a country.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 10.
The Human Development Index (HDI) does not take into account the following dimension in its calculation
(a) Gender
(b) Health
(c) Education
(d) Income
Answer:
(a) Gender

Question 11.
Among the following states which state have the literacy rate (2011) higher than national average
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Tamil Nadu

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 12.
Sex-ratio means
(a) the ratio between adult-male and adult female in a population
(b) the ratio between female and male in a population
(c) the relationship between male of female
(d) the number of females per thousand males
Answer:
(d) the number of females per thousand males

Question 13.
Inter-generational equality is ensured under the process of
(a) Industrial Progress
(b) Economic development
(c) Sustainable development
(d) Economic growth
Answer:
(c) Sustainable development

Question 14.
Find the odd one
(a) Solar energy
(b) Wind energy
(c) Paper
(d) Natural gas
Answer:
(c) Paper

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 15.
________ is the state with highest installed solar capacity in India.
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) West Bengal
(c) Kerala
(d) Andhra Pradesh
Answer:
(a) Tamil Nadu

Question 16.
________ resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use.
(a) Natural
(b) Renewable
(c) Non-Renewable
(d) New
Answer:
(c) Non-Renewable

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. Economic progress of any country is known as __________
  2. The head quarters of HRD Ministry is in __________
  3. The state having the highest literacy rate in India is __________
  4. Human Development Report of the world prepared and released by __________
  5. Groundwater is an example of resource __________
  6. The book An Uncertain Glory was written by __________

Answer:

  1. Economic Development
  2. Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi
  3. Kerala
  4. UNDP (United Nation Development Programme)
  5. Renewable
  6. Prof. Amartya Sen

III. Match the following

  1. Development – (i) Wild life Protection Act
  2. Human resource – (ii) Renewable resources
  3. Solar energy – (iii) Part of daily life
  4. 1972 – (iv) Education

Answer:

  1. – (iii)
  2. – (iv)
  3. – (ii)
  4. – (i)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

IV. Give Short answers

Question 1.
What do you mean by development?
Answer:

  1. Development refers to the progress in a particular field or particular person.
  2. Similarly, by economic progress of a country it is known as economic development.
  3. However the interpretation of the concept development keeps on changing from time to time, from person to person.
  4. Its meaning gets extended further.

Question 2.
What are the indicators of development?
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 3.
Why NNP is not considered as an useful measure to compare a country’s development with other countries?
Answer:

  1. For comparison between countries development, total income or the national income is not an useful measure.
  2. Since countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.
  3. Hence we compare average income which is also called per capita income.
  4. Now the economical have realised that investment in human capital

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 4.
Why human resources is considered as the foremost resource of any country?
Answer:

  1. Human resource is necessary for the progress of any country.
  2. Human resource refers to people who have the man power which can be utilized in the production sector.
  3. Therefore investment in human resource (education and health) can give high rate of returns in the future.
  4. Now the economists have realised that investment in human capital is as important as investment in physical capital.

Question 5.
Expand the following: 1. PPP 2. HDI
Answer:

  1. PPP – Purchasing Power Parity.
  2. HDI – Human Development Index.

Question 6.
Expand the following: 1. NNP 2. PCI
Answer:

  1. NNP – Net National Product.
  2. PCI – Per Capita Income.

Question 7.
What is ‘Solar Power’?
Answer:
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaic cells or indirectly using concentrated solar power. Solar panels absorb the sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.

V. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Discuss the policies for sustainable development.
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

  1. Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment. Sustainability
  2. The development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.
  3. Sustainability of development is comparatively a new era of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together.
  4. If environment is not protected, we fall into prey of national disaster.
  5. To achieve time sustainability we need to balance economic social and environmental sustainability in equal harmony.
  6. In general the question of development or process is perennial.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 2.
Describe in detail about environmental policies in India. Ans:
Answer:
Environmental policies in India:

  1. Environmental policies in India have been evolved considerably over the part 3 decades.
  2. These policies have covered a wide range of issues such as air, water pollution, waste management and bio diversity conservation.
  3. India faces challenges in economic development, which is to be met from limited resources and uncertain climate.
  4. One of the approaches to overcome this challenge is through the path of sustainable development.
  5. The Supreme Court of India has been engaged in interpreting and introducing new changes in the Environmental protection.
  6. Article 51 A(g) of the Constitution states that, “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.”
  7. The Indian wild life Protection Act of 1972 protected the biodiversity.
  8. The 1988 National Forest Policy had conservations as its fundamental principle.
  9. The Government passed the Environment Protection Act in 1986.
  10. Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act of 1992 for control of bio-diversity.
  11. Development increases with quality of life.
  12. People will have higher incomes, better education, better health and nutrition, less poverty and more equality of opportunity.

Question 3.
Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources.
Answer:
Renewable Resource:

  1. These resources cannot be exhausted.
  2. It can be used again and again.
  3. Eg: Solar Energy, wind energy, tidal energy and hydroelectric etc.,
  4. It has low carbon emission and hence environment friendly.
  5. Cost is low.
  6. These resources are pollution free.
  7. Life of resource is infinite.

Non Renewable Resource:

  1. These resources can be exhausted one day.
  2. Cannot be used repeatedly.
  3. Eg: Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas etc.,
  4. It has high carbon emission and damage the environment.
  5. Cost is high.
  6. The Non renewable resources pollute the environment.
  7. Life of resource is finite and vanishes one day.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 4.
Mention any five environmental acts and their action. Ans:
Answer:
Act:

  1. National Green Tribunal Act, 2010
  2. Biological Diversity Act, 2002
  3. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  4. Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
  5. Water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974
  6. Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

Action:

  1. Environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources.
  2. To provide for conservation of biological diversity.
  3. Providing for the protection and improvement of the environment.
  4. Check deforestation and encourage afforestation of non-forest areas.
  5. Provides maintenance and restoration and quality of all types of surface and groundwater.
  6. Providing protection to wild animals and birds.

VI. Projects and Activities

Question 1.
List the various ways in which the problems of garbage and emissions are being dealt with around the world.
Answer:

  1. The threat of waste to the environment health and safety is huge.
  2. Pollution runs into rivers and seeps into groundwater.
  3. Flooding is caused by garbage clogging drains and the atmosphere can be poisoned by the toxic discharge from trash.
  4. Bacteria, insects and vermin thrive from garbage, causing pollution leading to respiratory diseases, contamination of surface-water affecting all eco-system.
  5. We can reduce waste at home by knowing the rules of recycling, ditching the plastic bags, learning to repair rather than discarding, not using disposable plates etc.
  6. Use environmentally safe products, use water-based paints, dispose of trash properly.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

VII. Hots

Question 1.
Write in detail what kind of environmental problems you face in your locality
Answer:
We face the following environmental problems in our locality:

  1. Pollution of the air, water, soil and others by chemicals.
  2. Flood, increased number of low pressure depressions, cyclones, etc. during October to December.
  3. The gradual caving in or sinking of areas near coastal land.
  4. Usage and dumping of radioactive materials from hospital wastes.
  5. Burning of garbage waste in open areas.
  6. Increase of UV rays due to depletion of the Ozone Layer.
  7. Insufficient energy, water, food and other resources.
  8. Other pollutions (noise, vibration, smell, radio wave damage, light pollution).
  9. Extensive killing of animals and destroying of plants.
  10. Rapid Global Warming.

VIII. Life Skill

Question 1.
How is the Per Capita income calculated?
Answer:

  1. Per capita income is the average income of an individual of a country
  2. It is calculated by dividing the area’s total income by its total population.

PCI – Per = \(\frac { NNP }{ Total Population of country }\)
PCI – Per Capita Income; NNP – Net National Product.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability Additional Important Questions and Answers

I. Choose the best answer

Question 1.
India in said to be a _________ country.
(a) developed
(b) rich
(c) poor
(d) developing
Answer:
(d) developing

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 2.
Development increases in the _________ of life.
(a) quantity
(b) quality
(c) nature
(d) style
Answer:
(b) quality

Question 3.
Which one of the following does not contribute towards development?
(a) Stagnant
(b) Progress
(c) Improvement
(d) Bettering ourself
Answer:
(a) Stagnant

Question 4.
Assertion (A): The enrolment for higher education in Tamil Nadu is the highest in India.
Reason (R): Tamil Nadu’s literacy rate is higher than the national average.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)

Question 5.
Assertion (A): Scientists, Economists, Philosopher and other social scientists are working together.
Reason (R) : Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging’the environment and preserve it for the future.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)
(c) (A) is correct and (R) is false
(d) (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) does not explain (A)

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. Development refers to the __________ of a particular field or a particular person.
  2.  __________ initiated bold social programmers such as midday meals in schools.
  3. For the progress of any country __________ resource is necessary.
  4. A rise in per capita income will always mean a rise in __________

Answer:

  1. progress
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Human
  4. aggregate real output

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

III. Match the following

  1. Sustainable Development – (i) Progress
  2. Human Resource – (ii) Per captia Income
  3. Economic Development – (iii) Protect
  4. Conserve – (iv) No damage to the Environment

Answer:

  1. – iv
  2. – i
  3. – ii
  4. – iii

IV. Give short answers

Question 1.
What is meant by the term economic development?
Answer:

  1. The term economic development refers to the overall growth of all sectors of the economy by adoption of new technologies.
  2. The development improves the living standards of the people as well as the status of the country.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

Question 2.
What is meant by the average Income?
Answer:

  1. The average income is also called per capita income (PCI)
  2. The average income is calculated by dividing country’s the total income by its total population.

Question 3.
We need to balance economic, social and environment sustainability in equal harmony Why?
Answer:

  1. Let us take the example of Ground water. It is an example of renewable resource.
  2. These resources are replenished by nature as in the case of crops and plants. If these resources are over used, more than what is being replenished by rain, then would raise the question – How sustainable development is possible?
  3. Non renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use.
  4. These resources cannot be replenished.
  5. Therefore to achieve true sustainability we need to balance economic, social and environment sustainability in equal harmony.

Question 4.
Why is LPG subsidy being provided?
Answer:

  1. In rural areas people use wood, cow dung cake or other bio mass as fuel.
  2. This practice brings deforestation, wastage of cattle dung and air pollution.
  3. To rectify this situation, LPG subsidy is being provided, which is clean fuel and reduce pollution to a large extent.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

V. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Write a note on the indicators of economic development.
Answer:
(a) sentense:

  1. The major indicators to measure the level of economic development are Net National
    Product (NNP), Per Capita Income (PCI), Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), Human Development Index (HDI).
  2. Among these indicators we shall discuss about Per Capita income and Net National Product.

(b) Per Capita Income:

  1. For comparing countrie’s development, there is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
  2. Countries with higher income are more developed than with less income.
  3. So income itself considered to be one of the indicators of economic development.

(c) Net National Product:

  1. Net National Product is considered as a true measure of national output.
  2. It is also known as National Income.
  3. A rise in per capita income will always mean a rise in aggregate real output. Hence this is better than that of National Income.
  4. Since countries have different population, comparing total income will not be . suggestive of what an average person is likely to earn.
  5. Hence we compare average income (Total income of the country divided by total population).
  6. This average Income is also called Per Capita Income.

(d) Sentense:

  1. According to World Bank report, countries having more than 12,235 US dollar as Per Capita Income are called as rich countries.
  2. India’s GDP per capital is 1,99,000 US dollars.
  3. India is said to be a developing country.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Economics Chapter 1 Understanding Development: Perspectives, Measurement and Sustainability

VI. Hots

Question 1.
What can a common man do to improve the economy of India?
Answer:
Some of the suggestions are given below:

  1. Pay taxes.
  2. Ask for bills whenever you purchase anything.
  3. Do not buy gold and keep in lockers. Keep your money in circulation.
  4. Use less electricity. Install solar panels.
  5. Walk or use cycle whenever you can.
  6. Do not indulge in corrupt practices.
  7. Teach underprivileged children, the future citizens of India.
  8. If possible start your own company, creating job opportunities.
  9. Treat women properly by recognizing their efficiency.
  10. Use your vote rightly and wisely.

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